Western Civilization-Earth Science Responses



There are many differences between Sparta and Athens. One of the biggest differences was the Spartans lived simply.  The Athenians chose to surround themselves with luxury. It is interesting to me that Spartans lived simply but still had servants. The Athenians did not surprise me that they had servants. Both cultures depended on agriculture to keep their state thriving. However, the Spartans depended on trade while the Athenians did not. There are many other differences such as: Spartans were superstitious while the Athens were not, Sparta discouraged the development of economic and social distinctions while Athens gave most of the control to the adult males, political and economic development caused a strain on both states. Sparta created a military state to relieve tensions while Athens established a government based on democratic principles.  I believe that both states had things that could apply to present day. For example, democratic principles that Athenians created are very important to present day. The one thing that struck me that is relevant or should I say prevalent in today’s society was how the Athenians chose luxury over simplicity. I think a large part of today’s society wish that they could live more simply. By being simplistic it did help past and present societies opportunities that may not be there if they chose luxury. It’s simple-if you spend all you funds on luxuries than there are no funds to build your state.



Yes, I believe that water is more valuable than oil today and it will continue to be in the future.  Where we live we take clean water for granted.  Other places in the world do not have it as easy as we do by getting water from a faucet.  Water is not replaceable.  If oil runs out, we will adapt and find another energy source.  We can learn to live without oil but we cannot live without water.  I think we adapt to issues that arise.  New technology develops every day.  We will learn to life with a different renewable energy resource.  In my opinion, water is a necessity and oil is a luxury; therefore, water will always be more valuable than oil.

Several years ago in my hometown we had a salmonella outbreak in the water.   Our water comes from an aquifer well and stored in in ground tanks as well as water towers.  I believe one of the tanks had a crack which causes the water to be contaminated.  I know the city put in additives to disinfect the water but I am not sure what.  We only use filtered water in my household.

Sample paper

Discussion Board Responses

Western Civilization

The paper on western civilization examines the differences between Sparta and Athens at length. The discussion board statement contrasts the lifestyles of Athenians and Spartans with regard to the social, economic, and political characteristics exhibited by each of the state. The article highlights the major difference between Spartans and Athenians as the lifestyles the two groups led. The Athenians lived in luxury, while Spartans lived simple lives. Nonetheless, the Spartans still maintained servants even with their simple lifestyle. With regard to the economic lifestyle, both of the cultures depended on trade as the backbone of their economies. The difference in their economic lifestyle is that the Spartans engaged on trade while Athenians did not engage in trade. Other differences exhibited include the two cultures’ political differences; Athenians practiced democracy while Spartans were more dictatorial. However, the discussion fails to highlight the strengths and weaknesses of each of the differences or special characteristics of the cultures.

Earth Science

The discussion asserts that water is currently more valuable compared to oil, which may not be entirely correct. Currently, oil is still valuable than water, as it is easier to access clean water and at a cheaper price comparing to oil. In most places of the world, clean water is relatively available, which also depends on the local government’s efforts and financial ability to supply clean water. Nonetheless, the discussion maintains that water will be more valuable even in future. The discussion asserts that water is “not replaceable,” which again is not correct. The reason why this is not correct is that the water on earth cannot be exhausted, and its quantity is constant over time. What changes is the quantity of water held over land, and the amount that is actually fresh or clean for drinking. The hydrological cycle ensures that water moves from the sea as water vapor to the land where it condenses and falls as rainfall. When there is little water on land or the sources that are there becomes contaminated, that is when shortage of clean water occurs.

Question 3

When water falls in the form of precipitation, it may take different paths. One of the common paths is surface runoff where water collects and fills rivers and streams. This water may flow back to the ocean or sea, and some of it may be used for domestic purposes such as in homes (Nelson, 2003). The second different path that water may take is infiltration into the ground. When precipitation occurs over land, some of the water percolates deep into the ground where it forms ground water. This water is used to replenish aquifers that form streams or rivers where the underground rocks are exposed on the surface (Nelson, 2003). The third path that water may take is evapotranspiration. Some of the precipitation evaporates directly into the atmosphere while another portion is absorbed by plants and released back into the atmosphere through transpiration.


Nelson, R. (2003). The water cycle. Minneapolis, MN: Lerner Publications Company.

Western Civilization-Sparta and Athens