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What is Programming?
It is the act of using code to instruct a computer. Programming language refers to the code itself. Programming is used to develop software programs and write codes. It is a complex language that cannot be understood without training. Programming can also be a set of rules fr formatting particular assignments.
Programming languages differ from one another and the applications where they are being used. As such programming demands that you learn to use certain sectors, language authority, and computations. The programming methods used for different programs depend largely on the developer.
Why You Should Learn Programming
- It is exciting
Programming is very exciting. You learn to create programs of any magnitude including games, social media platforms, websites, and much more. Most programming students go on to develop their cool functional apps and make money from them.
- It is a major aspect of technology
Technology companies like Facebook, Google, Apple, and lots more have become renowned in the digital world all thanks to the programmers behind their unique software. Programming skills will enable you to start your digital project and hopefully even make a difference in technology advancement.
- It has lucrative jobs
Programmers all over the world earn fat salaries whether they are working for government institutions or the private sector. If you strive to be a good programmer, you can establish yourself as a professional and make a pretty decent living from it.
Forms of Programming Language
Java is commonly used to develop software for several platforms but is considered a tad complex than other programming languages.
- C Language
C language is the generic language used to create other programming languages like Java, C++, python, and many more. It is usually used to implement different applications in a working program. It is not tied to a machine and as such, can be used in a wide range of applications and various forms.
It is one of the highest levels of programming language. It is developed to unreel through an application. Python is considered harder to understand compared to Java and C++ although its code is precise.
The abbreviation is short for Structured Query Language. It is a combination of social investigation and polynomial math. It is used in the preparation of social data and control of relative data in the database system of an organization.
This programming language is an extension of the C Language. It has an object aligned, nonspecific and practical features on top of its ability to manipulate memory on a relatively low level. It can be used in several stages such as servers, work, and virtual diversion products.
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HTML is a standard markup language. The abbreviation stands for Hyper Text Markup Language. It is used in creating web pages and applications. HTML can be applied academically in various ways. Students are expected to provide solutions to many HTML homework assignments to prove that they have understood and can apply the language. A majority of students usually grapple with HTML assignments because they are quite complex. If you are struggling and require help with your HTML homework, do not hesitate to reach out to us. Speedywriters.us is a team of experienced HTML professionals who specialize in providing HTML homework solutions for students just like you. Our tutors have studied to the highest levels of HTML related courses, making them some of the most qualified writers in the world. We are available 24 hours a day to assist students from across the world with their assignments. Our HTML assignment services are top-quality and very affordable.
Most features of HTML are considered ordinary to all its components but some of them are very specific. They take the format keyword=value at all times. Value is achieved with the use of single and double related costs. The characteristics and their practical values are portrayed through HTML requirements.
Here are some simple elementary elements of an HTML document:
- A line that contains information in HTML version
- An analytical header is determined by the framework information in the head.
- The body contains the material that will be displayed on the web page
- The HTML information should have labels
- Comments ought to be displayed in the middle.
Purpose of HTML
- It is very affordable because it is inbuilt into the system
- It used by all browsers across the internet
- It can be driven and controlled easily
- It has been used in a wide range of technological functions
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Case Study 3
KU Consulting has been asked to bid on a large consulting job with Albatross Anchor. In
order to win the contract for this consulting job a well written, logical, and highly
organized proposal must be written. It is your task/challenge to write the proposal for revamping Albatross Anchors Operations systems so that KU Consulting may win the
Using the mandatory template (found in Doc Sharing) prepare your proposal by
answering (in detail) all of the questions posed below.
Your answers must demonstrate your
understanding of the concepts and principles
identified within the textbook, course information,
and activities, but also from independent academic
quality research to solve these challenges.
While it is acceptable to use the textbook as
foundational material you must conduct
independent research, as well, using the Kaplan
virtual library and the Internet to find information
that supports your findings and conclusions. A
minimum of four academic resources, in
addition to the textbook, is required for each
section of the proposal.
Please note: Quotations should make up no
more than 10% of your proposal.
Requirements for successful completion of each section of the proposal include:
➢ Prepared using the mandatory template for each section of the proposal (the
templates for each section can be found in Doc Sharing of this virtual classroom).
Failure to use the mandatory template will result in an automatic reduction of one
➢ Proposal Cover Page
➢ APA style reference page.
➢ The body of the paper must be 4 full pages long (this does not include the cover or
➢ Body of the paper must be double-spaced (this includes spacing between
paragraphs and before/after headings).
➢ One inch margins on all four sides of the page.
➢ Times New Roman 12-font only.
➢ Indent the first sentence of each new paragraph ½ inch (this is already set in MS
Word as the first “Tab” setting”)
➢ Grammatically and mechanically sound.
➢ Introductory and concluding paragraph(s).
➢ A minimum of four academic quality research sources in addition to the textbook).
➢ Citations, within the body of the paper, identifying source materials, and in APA
format are required along with corresponding reference page listings.
The following documents are in Doc Sharing.
● MT435 Case Study 3.pdf
● MT435 Case Study 3 Template.doc (Template is required)
1. Do not use Wikipedia, wikis, Answers.com, Ask.com, online dictionaries, or online
encyclopedias for this project. As a senior level student you are responsible for
independent research and for veracity of source.
2. A search engine is not a source but a tool used to find a resource. For information
on APA referencing of Internet-based information use the information on APA
formatting contained within the Kaplan Writing Center for more information or you
may use the Kaplan Guide to Successful Writing that is located in the Doc Sharing
area of this virtual classroom.
Albatross Anchor Case Study 3 (Note: This is not a real company)
Albatross Anchor is a small family owned business that began in 1976 with four family
members. Albatross anchor has grown exponentially and now employs 130 people. This
one location/facility is situated on 12 acres located in a rural suburb of Smalltown, USA
(Please note* the building and facilities for Albatross Anchor are landlocked).
The plant* and the administrative offices are located in the same building.
(*Note: The plant includes: manufacturing, the shipping department, the receiving department, raw
materials storage, finished product storage, and the foundry).
The administrative offices are in the front of the building and the plant is located directly
behind the administrative offices (see diagram). The administrative offices have issues
because they are somewhat shabby, disorganized, and run inefficiently.
The plant is antiquated, worn, dirty, and technology-deprived and it no longer meets all
U.S. safety and environmental standards.
The owners of this small business have added on various processes as needs arose;
within the limited space of the plant. When Albatross Anchor first opened its doors their
expertise was in the manufacturing of bell/mushroom anchors (using a foundry process).
In 1989, in response to international competition, the owners of Albatross Anchor made
the decision to expand the product line to include fabricated snag hook anchors.
Albatross Anchor is a manufacturing factory that sells only at the wholesale level.
Albatross Anchors sales their products in two ways:
(01) Distributors that act as the middleman. The distributor accepts bulk delivery
of anchors at their large distribution centers. At the distribution center the bulk
shipment of anchors is broken up into smaller batches and shipped to individual
(02) OEM customers that purchase anchors in large batches to be used as a
component in the manufacture of boats.
Albatross Anchor does not sell retail. They are strictly a wholesale organization.
The bell anchor is manufactured primarily through a foundry process in which ore is
transformed into a liquid state and then poured into molds as part of the production
process. The bell anchor is used primarily by freshwater marine craft.
The snag hook anchor is fabricated through the bending and welding of iron rods and flat
iron into a hook design. The hook design is best when used in saltwater. This hook design
snags bedrock and seaweed which holds the marine craft at anchor. The snag hook
anchor is used primarily for small to medium sized saltwater marine craft.
Each anchor is produced in multiple sizes to accommodate the type of watercraft, the
size of the watercraft and the place where the anchor will be used (saltwater or
Each anchor type requires its own unique equipment and manufacturing process. Yet,
both manufacturing areas share the same shipping area, receiving area, warehouse area,
and administration offices.
The manufacturing area of the plant has had to change to accommodate the manufacture
of the two separate types of anchors. As each anchor requires its own manufacturing
challenges the manufacturing line must be completely changed over each time the anchor
type is changed. The time to switch over from one manufacturing process/operation to
the other manufacturing process/operation is 36 hours.
The plant space is at a premium and warehousing space for raw materials and finished
product is limited and located at the far south end of the building.
Plant antiquation and safety issues result in small batch production only. As a result of
this limitation, lead time for exceptionally large bulk orders is 3 to 4 weeks.
Current manufacturing costs are $8.00 per pound for mushroom/bell anchors and $11.00
per pound for snag hook anchors. Albatross Anchor charges the same per unit as their
competitors. However, the profit margin can sometimes be as much as 35% less (on
some of the anchors) because of operations inefficiencies.
Product size, bulk, and weight and maximum load limits require that the anchors be
shipped by large truck, rail, or large ocean-going freighter. Domestic orders are usually
shipped by large truck. International orders are shipped by rail and ultimately by large
ocean-going freighters. These are the only two methods of product shipment.
Receipt of raw materials is by rail. Prior to the sale of anchors into the international
market all shipments of finished product went out completely by truck and therefore all
shipping activities were limited to the east side of the building.
Now, because of the limitation of shipping product into the international marketplace, all
product shipments for international delivery go out of the receiving dock for the initial leg
of shipment by rail. Prior to expansion into the international marketplace shipping had
been limited to the shipping department and receiving was limited to the receiving area.
However, with this change in international shipping the receiving area must now do
double duty – shipping of international orders as well as receipt of all incoming raw
Please view the below representation of the current building/facility set up.
Case Study 3
Refer to the Albatross Anchor scenario/case study. Make recommendations for at least
four of the following challenges:
List of challenges
(a) Time management
(b) Cost management
(c) Quality management
(d) Performance management
(e) Enterprise project management
(f) Technology adoption
(g) Supply chain management
(h) Distribution management
As the consultant for KU Consulting, you have been authorized to change the existing
facility (limited construction budget) and/or refine the process flow of the manufacturing
area. All changes must be completed within a 60-day window with the majority of the
changes happening at night when the plant is idle or on the weekend when the plant is
(a) List and detail the proposed changes and/or alterations. Please explain why you
chose what you chose, give the rationale behind your choices and finally, substantiate
(b) List and detail three implications and three complications that may occur as a result
of the recommended changes. Remember activities in one area of the facility may have
an impact on other areas of the facility.
(c) Create a Gantt chart showing a timeline for when the different changes proposed
should be made, detailing which changes may overlap and showing how long each
change will take to institute. Provide information to support your decisions and to explain
your choices as shown in the Gantt chart.
Case Study 3: MT435 Operations Management
Albatross Anchor is a small family business that manufactures bell/mushroom anchors and fabricated snag hook anchors. Albatross Anchor is currently experiencing a number of technical and managerial challenges that threaten to erode its profitability with time. With increasing competition from companies manufacturing similar products, the company has found its future operational existence under constant threat unless there is concrete action to reverse the current trend. The current manufacturing process employed by Albatross utilizes outdated technology making it inefficient and ineffective. The company also experiences significant challenges in management that increase the overall inefficiency and add to the cost of production. This proposal gives appropriate recommendations that Albatross Anchor can adopt to improve its production efficiency and reduce costs.
Challenge 1: Time management
Albatross Anchor has poor time management skills. Currently, there is a lot of time wastage during the complete change over from one production process to another to suit production of the two different anchors. It takes the company about 36 hours to completely shift from one production process to another, which contributes greatly to inefficiencies through lost production time. Time is a great resource in manufacturing. The longer it takes to complete a project or a particular task, the higher the operational costs. According to Sivakumar (2010), companies should apply time management strategies in order to complete projects or processes efficiently and deliver to customers in a timely manner. Albatross Anchor can improve time management through implementing an additional manufacturing line to avoid time wastage during the changeover period. Although the initial costs may be high, the long-term benefits are attractive since the company will significantly improve its production capacity and reduce time wastage.
Challenge 2: Cost management
There is need for Albatross Anchor to improve its cost management strategies. Currently, the company’s profit margin varies significantly due to operations inefficiencies. The profit margin can vary by about 35 percent, which is a significant amount. Albatross Anchor can cut costs through four key strategies that include reduction strategies, elimination strategies, innovation, and through modification (Swamidass, 2000). Reduction strategies should focus on cutting down production time and the waiting period. Elimination strategy should aim at reducing waste, eliminating barriers and reducing bottlenecks in production. Innovation may entail re-engineering the entire production process, equipment in use, or replacing the production methods. Modification aims at reducing costs through new design of product.
Challenge 3: Enterprise project management (EPM)
Enterprise project management is a significant area in a company experiencing radical transformation or change. Over the years, Albatross Anchors has increased in size from a small family owned production plant to a larger facility serving the international market and having 130 employees. This transformation from a small family owned business has led to new managerial and technical challenges. EPM can enable the company to manage changes and integrate with new production techniques or technologies (Schwindt, 2005).
Challenge 4: Technology adoption
The current plant at Albatross Anchor uses outdated technology that does not meet all the safety and environmental standards outlined by regulatory authorities in the U.S. There is dire need to adopt the latest technology in production to boost plant capacity and increase efficiency in operations. In the modern manufacturing world, automation has become a common phenomenon replacing old methods of production such as manual work by hand in manufacturing and fabrication process. Automation of the manufacturing process has enabled companies to mass-produce high quality products and to maintain similar standards for all products. Application of modern technology is also critical in reducing wastage and improving the overall efficiency. In the current period, automation is a major determining factor in the competitiveness of a particular company.
- Proposed changes: After much deliberation, KU Consulting recommends changing the existing facility as the best strategy especially with regard to the long-term goals of the Albatross Anchor. Since each of the anchors require unique equipment and manufacturing process, there is need to carry out production in separate areas. This will increase the production capacity of Albatross Anchor and reduce time wastage. Currently, shifting from one production process to another takes 36 hours, which represents a huge share of labor hours lost. Changing the existing facility will enable Albatross anchor acquire latest equipment or technology which conforms to the U.S. safety and environmental standards. The quality of products will improve in addition to low production costs.
- Implications and Complications
Related paper: MT435-01: Global Supply Chain Management
Three implications may arise by changing the existing facility. First, there could be a significant reduction in lead-time in the manufacturing process. Adopting a new production facility will enable Albatross Anchor improve production speed for both type of anchors. This will cut down the lead-time for bulk orders to about one week. Secondly, Albatross Anchor will experience significant reduction in costs. Application of modern technology in manufacturing eliminates wastes, reduces demand for manual labor, and increases efficiency in the production process. This drives production costs down. Lastly, it will enable the company meet the outlined safety and environmental standards as per the U.S. manufacturing laws.
Several complications may arise. First, employees may lack the necessary skills, knowledge or experience required to manage a larger facility or the new equipment and technology. This will require training the employees, which may be costly. Secondly, limited funds may hamper efforts to change the existing facility. Building a new facility will cost higher compared to refining the process flow of the manufacturing area. Thirdly, there may be need for additional employees, which may bring additional costs to the company. Changing the existing facility will involve reexamining the current production process and making improvement in several areas. This will create the need for additional employees in areas such as plant operation and in administration.
The following Gantt chart shows the timeline for changing the existing facility
|Task Name||Duration||Week 1||Week 2||Week 3||Week 4||Week 5||Week 6||Week 7||Week 8|
1.1 Assessment of organizational needs
1.2 Requirements analysis
2.1 Training employees and other development staff
2.2 Establishing the aims and purpose of the new plant
|3||Assessment of site
3.1 Construction of the new site
3.2 Establishing infrastructural needs
3.3 Provisioning utilities
4.1 Installing the new plant
The first step involves the evaluation of organizational needs and requirements. This will enable the management establish what exactly the organization requires and whether changing the existing facility is necessary. On conducting the needs assessment, training of employees will take place to brief them on what to expect with the new plant and equipment. It is important to train employees to improve their skills and knowledge. Construction of the new site will take approximately one month. This will also entail provisioning of infrastructural needs and installation of necessary operational utilities such as water and electricity. In the last two weeks, installation and testing of the new manufacturing system will occur.
There is need for Albatross Anchor to implement the aforementioned recommendation in order to improve the production process. Key among the recommendations is the need to replace the outdated technology with new technology. This will improve efficiency in production process and ensure conformance with outlined safety standards and regulations.
Schwindt, C. (2005). Resource allocation in project management. (Springer e-books.) Berlin: Springer.
Sivakumar, V. (2010). Lean and agile manufacturing: Theoretical, practical and research futurities. S.l.: Prentice-Hall Of India Pv.
Swamidass, P. M. (2000). Innovations in Competitive Manufacturing. Boston, MA: Springer US.
Related content : Unit 9: Forecasting.
Describe three recent situations in which you were directly affected by poor product or service quality.
Describe three recent situations in which you were directly affected by poor product or service quality. What might have been the cause and how might statistical quality control help eliminate these situations?
Statistical Quality Control
Poor product or service quality affect consumers even with the existence of quality and standards bodies that ought to protect consumers from such. The first situation in which poor service affected me occurred when I subscribed with Verizon Communication Inc. as my internet provider. The internet speeds were quite slow in my area and suffered occasional outages. The main reason for this problem was the distance between my house and the servers. The IT experts failed to consider that the distance was much further than the signal could get. Statistical quality control can help eliminate such a problem by testing the services for defects (Montgomery, 2012). The process could enable the company decide whether to reject or accept the internet connection in the specific locality.
The second situation occurred when I purchased clothes from a popular online retail store. A mix-up of orders occurred and it took long for the online store to get the correct orders that I had requested. Additionally, I paid the entire cost of sending the products back to the online store. Negligence was the most likely cause of the mix-up I experienced. This is true judging by the number of customers with similar complaints. Statistical quality control emphasizes on early detection of problems. As such, the method focuses more on prevention rather than taking corrective decisions. This would have helped avoid the mix-up.
The third situation occurred when I purchased a discounted mountain bike from a retail store. On using the mountain bike for a week, it developed significant problems that I decided to throw it away. Poor quality control mechanisms at the store contributed to this problem. Statistical quality control could help avoid this situation by ensuring there is control. Control charts can help identify whether there are defective units and the proportion of the defects (Montgomery, 2012). If the proportion of defects is high, the batch of goods is rejected.
Montgomery, D. C. (2012). Statistical quality control, 7th edition. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.
Related content: Forecasting
Select one industry from the list below: Bank, restaurant, health clinic/hospital, airline, or university.
Successful organizations are also those who are able to make relatively accurate forecasts about the future needs (inventory, facilities, capacity, manufacturing, manpower) for the products produced or the services delivered.
Forecasting is an uncertain science since it calls for predictions but current theoretical and mathematical models (quantitative and qualitative) make it possible for organizations to predict with an acceptable margin of error. Think about it this way; without forecasting organizations would always be responding rather than acting.
- Select one industry from the list below: Bank, restaurant, health clinic/hospital, airline, or university.
- What specific variables would be needed by that organization in order to forecast? Be sure you explain why you selected each variable and why it is important to forecasting.
- Which variables are used for short-range forecasting, long-range forecasting, or for both. Make sure you support your selections.
Everything in life nowadays needs planning particularly business organization. Forecasting is one of the planning tools that provide an insight and prediction of the future of the organization especially the financial status of the organization. The primary purpose of forecasting is to eliminate or reduce effects of uncertainty in all aspects and levels of business. For prediction to be useful, an organization needs to use both the past and present data to project the future outcome (Box, 2015). This paper seeks to discuss the variables that are necessary to forecast processes in the hotel industry.
The hospitality industry goes beyond the hotel as it includes lodgings, event planning, and theme parks. Below are some of the key variables that should be included in the forecasting process of a restaurant.
- Sales – sales in a hotel forms the essential part of all business operations. As a matter of fact, the hotel needs to know how much sales it makes per day to come up with both food and beverage cost.
- The number of customers – in most cases, the hotel industry is highly affected by the seasons of the year. During the peak periods, there are large numbers of customers but during the low peak periods, there are few guests. The number of customers helps the hotel to plan on how to purchase their foodstuffs(Box, 2015).
However, variables can also be divided into short term and long terms depending on their effects on the daily operations of the business.
- Sales can be grouped as a long-term variable considering that sales of food, beverages, and beds are the main source of income and revenue for hotels. Without sales or with reduced sales, the hotel cannot operate efficiently because the cost may exceed revenue.
- The number of customers can be grouped as a short-term variable since it only affects the hotel for a few days especially if the hotels uses the reorder time as a week or a month. Mostly, the re-order level is influenced by lead time(Box, 2015)
Box, G. E. (2015). time series analysis: forecasting and control. John Wiley & Sons.
Related: Forecasting Demand
Unit 9: Forecasting.
Research the following topics related to Forecasting:
- Qualitative/Quantitative/Mixed Methods
- Forecasting Demand
- Forecasting accuracy
Select three of the topics listed and compose three paragraphs describing the topics, one paragraph per selected topic, based on the course material and additional research you conduct online.
Forecasting demand refers to a forecasting method that looks at the future demand of a particular product or service. Forecasting demand helps in inventory management, assessing capacity requirements, production planning, and in decision making such as when targeting a new market (Pride, 2011). Both qualitative and quantitative assessments help in forecasting demand. Forecasting demand involves estimating the future sales of a particular product or service in relation to a projected marketing plan. Forecasting demand involves analysis of three key areas in a business or organization. These areas include the sales forecast of the company, industry analysis, and an environmental analysis.
Regression models make future predictions or forecasts by using past data. Regression technique analyzes the relationship between two or more variables (dependent and independent variables) (Pride, 2011). The Delphi Method is a qualitative forecasting technique introduced by the Rand Corporation. The Delphi Method employs opinion given by experts in making forecasts and predictions. As such, this method does not rely on historical data unlike other methods in making future predictions. In using this method, experts conduct a Delphi study. The Delphi study involves the analysis of the social, political, and technological factors that may have an impact on the business. The results of the study inform the development of new programs, sales strategies, or even new products.
Forecasting accuracy helps businesses evaluate how accurate the forecasts they used were. It is necessary for businesses to assess the accuracy of the forecasting techniques they use. Forecasting accuracy can help in estimating the forecast model bias, compare different forecasting methods, and in assessing the magnitude of the forecast errors. A number of measures can help to assess the forecasting accuracy. These include mean forecast error, mean absolute deviation, forecast error, tracking signal, and others. These methods rely on the analysis of forecasts and the actual outcomes (Clements & Hendry, 2000). They also analyze information use in forecasts as well as the rationality of the particular forecasts conducted.
Clements, M. P., & Hendry, D. F. (2000). Forecasting economic time series. Cambridge [u.a.: Cambridge Univ. Press.
Pride, W. M. (2011). Marketing principles. South Melbourne, Vic: Cengage Learning.
Related content : Global Supply Chain Management
Question : MT435-01: Global Supply Chain Management
Research the impact of global shipping and receiving at ports around the world since September 11, 2001. What policy has been added to this field? What laws have been changed? Describe best practices in global shipping and receiving at ports in your own words, supported by your research online
Global supply Chain Management
The impact of global shipping and receiving at ports have undergone radical changes since September 11, 2001. New approaches, technologies, and mandates were adopted in an effort to improve the global supply chain security. Prior to September 11, 2001, security was among the least concern when moving goods from one place to another. The major priorities rested on delivering goods at the right place and time. Prior to September 11, custom authorities were mandated with the legal authority to clear imported goods. Currently, exporters are required to furnish custom officers with relevant documentation to proof origin of goods. The events of September 11 precipitated the World Customs Organization (WCO) to ratify custom procedures outlined during the Kyoto Convention (Peterson & Treat, 2008). New protocols dubbed the Framework of Standards to Secure and Facilitate Trade (SAFE) were also introduced.
The customs-to-customs network was introduced under the WCO Framework to facilitate screening of high-risk cargo using automated techniques. The customs-to-business partnership was also introduced under the WCO Framework to pre-certify those involved in shipping via a unique shipping program. The network and partnership are fundamental in four major areas: application of risk management techniques, harmonization of the import/export procedures, easy inspections for outbound cargo, and new programs that improved customs processing (Peterson & Treat, 2008).
The best practices in global shipping and receiving at ports involves enhanced security measures to counter the ever growing threat of terrorism. In order to achieve this, global shipping and receiving at ports must increasingly rely on electronic-based systems. Electronic-based systems have greater potential for improving security. Additionally, there should be strict adherence to global shipping and receiving laws and regulations in order to improve security and service delivery.
Peterson, J., & Treat, A. (2008). The post-9/11 global framework for cargo security. Journal of International Commerce and Economics.
Social responsibility is the theory that a company should build relationships with the society and the environment where it’s located.
This involves actively cultivating and valuing these relationships with society, consumers and even employees instead of just being consumed with maximizing profits.
Although critics have frequently argued that environment is not actually a business stakeholder, businesses have a duty to act in the best interest of both society and their environment. This is otherwise known as Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR).
Companies around the globe take different positions on this and we have broken then down into four approaches to CSR.
Companies that take an obstructionist stance to social responsibility normally attempt to defend their economic priorities by blocking any attempts to point out the lack of social responsibility.
Making profits is the most important aspect of their business and although they are proud of it, they will deny any wrongdoing and use any obstacles available to them to deliberately derail or divert investigation of their practices when faced with specific social demands.
Companies that take the defensive approach to social responsibility aren’t socially responsible but they do a somewhat good job of hiding it.
Making profits is way more important to them than performing socially responsible actions.
They consider themselves neutral hence social responsibility isn’t a topic you can openly take up with them.
These companies make a point of following the law to ensure that others cannot take legal action against them. This does not mean that they do not perform actions that are detrimental to both society and the environment, they just look for legal ways of protecting themselves from lawsuits.
Companies that take this approach actually believe that social responsibility is just as important as making a profit.
They satisfy all legal requirements and normally attempt to meet ethical standards.
Such companies remain transparent about why they take specific actions and strive to be valuable to the society and the environment instead of hiding their actions.
These companies may even decrease waste creation, do away with animal-tested products and pay their employees fair wage.
They keep their records open to the public.
Although they strive to be socially responsible, they may change their policies in response to criticism just so they remain in their shareholders’ good books.
Companies that take a proactive approach to social responsibility make it a priority even if doing so ends up cutting into their profits.
They try to remain ahead of the curve in regards to social responsibility instead of reacting to criticism of their actions.
Most of them even include ethics in their mission statement and try to avoid any harm to the environment, the society or their employees.
Some of the actions associated with a proactive stance in companies include giving all employees living wage and benefits, instituting new recycling programs and donation of a portion of their profits to charity.
Although some companies still fail to give social responsible the respect it deserves, it is actually very beneficial to the overall business of a company if done willingly.
Nowadays, investors and consumers seek investments that aren’t just profitable, but also contribute to the welfare of both society and environment. Embracing social responsibility can lead to maximization of shareholder value by reeling in those much needed investors while making sure that the consumers and community around you feel just as important.
Engaging in social responsibility will also boost morale for your company especially if you involve your employees in your social causes.
Social responsibility is not just the moral thing to do, it is good business practice.
What is the Purpose of Corporate Social Responsibility?
Corporate social responsibility is a business approach that contributes to sustainable development by delivering economic, social and environmental benefits for all stakeholders. It is also known also known as corporate citizenship.
This self regulated company practice is aimed at improving society or impacting positive change.
It addresses a variety of issues among them, human rights, education, health, safety, corporate governance, working conditions and environmental stability.
CSR efforts ought to be focused on real life challenges and should aim to impact real change.
To be authentic in ones CSR, a company should ensure that the work they do every day is connected to what they care about as a company.
If a company chooses to engage in opportunistic or short lived attempts at social impact instead of going all in to make real change, they are bound to be found out by keen investors and customers who may then discredit their whole mission.
CSR can also be used as a marketing strategy as long as the company continues to put in the work and gain tangible results.
Importance of CSR
- Improves the company’s public image which appears more favourable to customers.
- Gives the company an advantage over competitors who aren’t engaged in CSR.
- Improves brand awareness and value by showing that the company is not just about profits but also reliable positive change.
- Fuels customer loyalty since most people want to be part of a company with a vision and willingness to do good.
- Increased revenue.
- Attracts and retains talented employees.
- Motivates employees and brings about greater productivity by engaging employees in CSR.
- Helps the society to find solutions to every day issues.
- Helps nonprofit organizations find support beyond individual donors because companies with CSR mostly offer donations and voluntary programs to them.
- Sustainable changes such as reduced packaging actually reduce the production costs.
How Does Government Shape the Social Responsibility of Organizations?
The government, through the national, state and local branches, tries to shape social responsibility practices through both direct and indirect means.
Direct influence involves the establishment of laws and rules that dictate what organizations can and cannot do.
This form of regulation is based on social beliefs and how businesses should conduct themselves.
Such regulation includes company laws, regulations for pension funds, stock exchange regulations, laws on CSR reporting and penalties for noncompliance, among others.
The government can also provide incentive by putting in place tax exemptions for social or philanthropic investments, internet platforms and award schemes that increase the visibility of CSR activities, training and capacity building for Small to Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs) and providing funding for research on CSR.
We have also witnessed intervention where the government has raised awareness on CSR by demonstrating how companies can contribute to sustainable development while also encouraging public sector engagement in the same.
The government can also partner with companies to tackle issues such as poverty reduction, access to health care and educational infrastructure to ensure that interested companies can really impact the change they desire.
What is Economic Responsibility?
Economic responsibility in CSR aims at striking a balance between business and the environmental and philanthropic practices.
Companies have a responsibility to find a solution that will facilitate the long term growth of the business while also meeting the set standards of both ethical and moral regulations.
Economic decisions made in a company have to be made by considering their overall effects on society and the business.
An example of economic responsibility is where a company incorporates recycled products into its manufacturing process. The company lowers the cost of materials used while taking up fewer resources hence benefitting the society.
Enterprise architecture (EA) is the practice of analyzing, designing, planning, and implementing enterprise analysis to enable the successful execution of business strategies. EA helps businesses structure IT projects and policies to achieve desired business results and to stay on top of industry trends and disruptions using architecture principles and practices.
The goal of enterprise architecture is to create a standard IT environment with tight symbiotic links to the business side of the organization and its strategy. It promotes alignment, standardization, reuse of existing IT assets, and the sharing of common methods for project management and software development across the organization. If all these are implemented strategically and successfully, the result is cheaper, more effective Information Technology.
Enterprise architecture creates a map of IT assets and business processes and sets principles to govern discussions on business strategy and IT.
Enterprise Architecture and SDLC phases are related by the fact that EA provides the strategy and procedures to be followed during SDLC.
Importance of Enterprise Architecture
EA offers support for re-designs and re-organization during major organizational changes, mergers, or acquisitions. It also adds to the discipline in the organization by offering standard and uniform processes for more consistency.
EA is also used in system development, IT management and decision-making, and IT risk management to eliminate errors, system failures, and security breaches. It can also help businesses navigate complex IT structures or to make IT more accessible to other business units.
Other benefits of Enterprise Architecture include:
- Allowing more transparent collaboration between IT and other business units
- Giving business the ability to prioritize investments
- Making it easier to evaluate existing architecture against long-term goals
- Establishing processes to evaluate and procure technology
- Giving a comprehensive view of IT architecture to all business units outside of IT
- Providing a benchmarking framework to compare results against those of other organizations or standards
Software Development Life Cycle
It is also known as the Software Development Process.
It is comprised of a framework that defines tasks that are performed at every stage in the software development process.
SDLC explains how to develop, maintain, replace, and alter specific software. It is set to improve the quality of software and the overall development process.
Planning and Requirement Analysis
This is the most important and fundamental stage in SDLC. It is performed by the senior members of the team with inputs from the customer, the sales department, market surveys, and domain experts in the industry. This information is then used to plan the basic project approach and to conduct a product feasibility study in the economical, operational, and technical areas. The outcome of this study will define the technical approaches that can be followed to implement the project successfully with minimum risks.
This step involves a clear definition and documentation of the product requirements together with approval from both customer and market analysts.
It is done through a Software Requirement Specification (SRS) document which contains all the product requirements that need to be designed and developed during the project’s life cycle.
Designing the Product Architecture
Various design approaches for the product architecture are proposed and documented in a Design Document Specification (DDS). The DDS is reviewed by all concerned stakeholders and the best design approach is selected for the product. This decision is influenced by factors such as budget, product size, design modularity, time limitations, and risk assessment.
Developing the Product
The actual development and building of the product start here.DDA generates the programming code and the design is performed with a focus on detail and order to generate the code.
Developers are supposed to follow the coding guidelines defined by their organization and programming tools like compilers, interpreters, and debuggers are used to generate the code. Different high-level programming languages are used for coding. The programming language is chosen concerning the type of software being developed.
Testing the Product
This testing is done to detect, report, track, fix, and retest product defects until the product attain the quality standards defined in the Software Requirement Specification.
.Deployment in the Market
When the product has been tested and deemed ready, it is released into the appropriate market. Product deployment may happen in stages, depending on the business strategy of the organization in question. Sometimes a product may be released in a limited segment to be tested in the real business environment. This is commonly known as User Acceptance Testing (UAT).
The product is then released as it is or with suggested enhancements, depending on the feedback from UAT.
After the deployment of a product into the market, maintenance is carried out from time to time especially if there is a hitch or need for enhancement. These issues are taken care of by the developers.
How Enterprise Architecture Supplements and Enables Each Phase of SDLC
EA contributes to the development of optimal designs of various systems, including every stage of SDLC.
Preliminary Analysis Phase
This is where the concept of the product is conceived and the planning begins. It involves the execution of preliminary appraisals, the proposition of different solutions, description of costs along with benefits, and the submission of preliminary recommendations.
System developers consider every priority and how it should be addressed. Feasibility studies are conducted to establish the viability of improving or replacing the systems in question. The studies should cover the systems’ operational, economic, technical, political, legal, and human factor aspects.
In this phase, Enterprise Architecture provides critical input before the happening of in-depth vendor management. It helps determine the application assets, or resources, that ought to be purchased. Other significant processes establish the projects’ courses and the application resources that ought to be bought. Such processes relate to how particular solutions would be incorporated into given environments and how they ought to be developed.
Requirements Analysis Phase
In this phase, Enterprise Architecture comes in handy in the analysis of the information requirements of intended end-users and removing any incompleteness and inconsistencies in the requirements. It helps to appraise the planned systems and prepare the necessary specifications for the product being developed.
Enterprise architects depend on developers along with domain architects to describe the planned systems in detail. Enterprise Architecture practitioners visualize how the subsystems or modules will fit into given enterprises and create helpful design patterns and optimized design configurations. All this effort makes it easier to review system designs upon their completion.
Here Enterprise Architecture specialists help in optimizing application coding efforts. They provide insights into the standardization of coding processes and ensure that the processes follow laid down governance regulations.
EA professionals determine how the attendant applications may be changed to optimize their eventual utility. If they establish that there are considerable architectural changes, they review those changes and assist project teams in conducting them appropriately.
Deployment and Maintenance Phases
In this phase, Enterprise Architecture guides the making of the required changes to the original software to make sure they do not turn into discontinuance.
System deployment includes enhancements and changes before decommissioning of the system. When software deployment is underway, EA specialists should not be engaged unless there are explicit needs.
Even so, they are very helpful in the optimization of software deployment procedures.
Introduction-MLA Citation Style
MLA is an abbreviation for the Modern Language Association, which is a language and literature-based organization.
There are other citation styles but the MLA format is mostly used for literature, language, liberal arts, and other humanities subjects.
Although you will mostly find MLA style in research papers, it is also comprised of other features such as in-text citations and the Works Cited page.
The MLA citation style creates a uniform format for scholars to document their sources and format their papers. This way, recognizing and understanding the types of sources used for a project becomes easier and encourages your readers to explore them, rather than just acknowledging them on the document.
An MLA citation ensures that credit has been given to the original author where information has been borrowed from a source and used in a research paper or assignment.
At the end of the research paper, there is a Works Cited list which contains all the citations placed in the project.
MLA Citation Format
The MLA citation format has been updated several times in the past, the most recent being the 8th edition released in 2016. Before this update, there were different formats for books, websites, journals, and the like, and it was up to scholars to find the right format.
The 8th edition came as a universal MLA citation format that included every existing source of information. It encourages the citation of URLs and allows the use of social media usernames and pseudonyms instead of an authors real name. A lot more updates have been included in this edition as possible to reflect the modern age of technology we all live in.
How to Cite Books in MLA Format
This is the most basic type of referencing. The items are lined up as follows:
Last name, first name. Title. Publisher, Year of Publication.
Please note that the title is in italics. All words in the title must be capitalized save for the articles.
If there are two authors, the first author’s name should be written inverted and the second author’s name should be written in order, both joined by an “and”.
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With in-text citations, you acknowledge a source by providing a brief reference to exactly where in the source you found the information. The reader can then use the complete reference listed in the Works Cited page at the end of your paper to verify what you have written.
In most cases, providing the author’s last name and a page number is sufficient. If you mention the author’s name in your text, only the page reference needs to be inserted in parentheses.
Works Cited List
This is the alphabetical list of works cited that appears at the end of your paper containing more information about all of the sources you’ve cited and allowing readers to refer to them, as needed.
It is very different from a bibliography. The main characteristics are:
- The list of Works Cited must be on a new page at the end of your text.
- Entries are arranged alphabetically by the author’s last name or by the title if there is no author.
- Titles of books are italicizedand titles of articles are placed in quotation marks. All important words should be capitalized.
- Entries are double-spaced (for this page, single-spacing is used).
- For online sources, the date of access is an optional element. However, it can be helpful to include this information, especially if the source you are using does not have a date of publication.
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How do you cite a white paper in MLA?
A white paper is a report that is produced by a government agency or a research organization. These reports are very helpful sources for research papers in the specific fields covered by them. White papers are cited the same as all other government reports.
The citation should start with the name of the author, their last name, a comma, then their first name. If the author has not been credited you can use the name of the government agency or organization. A period has to be placed after the author’s name.
Next, you type the full title of the white paper and a period inside quotation marks. It is important to use the title case.
If the white paper has been released as a series or a collection of similar papers on a broad area of study, type the title in italics and put a period after it.
Next should follow the name of the publishing organization or agency followed by a comma and the date of publication followed by either a comma or a period.
It is also important to add the direct URL for the white paper without the https:// portion of the address and add a period at the very end.
Remember to include a supplementary citation at the end of a quotation or a paraphrase of the white paper.
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