Quality Improvement Programs


Comparing and contrasting any pair from among these formal quality improvement programs: Joseph Juran’s Trilogy program, Edward Deming’s Quality program, Six Sigma, and Philip Crosby’s Quality is Free book. Your compare and contrast paper should include the following factors:
The main premise of the program
Key requirements for successful implementation
Initial steps to implement it

Sample paper

Quality Improvement Programs

Edward Deming and Joseph Juran’s Perspectives of Quality

Main Premise

Edward Deming’s Quality Program focuses on making improvements in quality by eliminating uncertainties and variability during service delivery (Redmond, Curtis, Noone, & Keenan, 2008). Deming premised his philosophy on four major elements: appreciation of the system, understanding variation, developing a theory of knowledge, and understanding the psychology or behavior of the employees. Deming highlighted 14 principles for enhancing transformation. On the other hand, Juran’s trilogy focuses on the idea that quality problems within the organization emanate from lack of effective planning for quality. Organizations that aim at improving quality must be willing to outline clear goals, policies, and vision (Godfrey & Kenett, 2007). The similarity between the two management philosophies is their emphasis on quality as the foundation on which organizations may build their performance.

Key Requirements for Successful Implementation

Under the Juran’s trilogy, successful implementation requires the organization to develop clear goals, policies, and a vision (Godfrey & Kenett, 2007). Deming’s Quality Program emphasizes on the important role played by the management during implementation. Deming noted that most problems in the organization are largely due to systemic issues and not due to employees’ faults. The similarity about implementation concerns the important role played by the management in the quality improvement process. In both approaches, the management is critical in the entire implementation process.

Initial Steps to Implement It

The initial step towards implementing Juran’s trilogy is the quality planning process. Quality planning is the process of designing products such that they conform to the goals established by the management (Godfrey & Kenett, 2007). Quality planning entails establishing quality goals, optimizing product features, identifying customer needs, and other roles. On the other hand, the initial steps towards implementing Deming’s quality approach focus on creating constancy and developing a new philosophy (Redmond et al., 2008). The aim of creating constancy of purpose is to improve products and services. The similarity herein is that both approaches focus on quality improvements as the initial steps.

Six sigma and Joseph and Phlip Crosby’s Quality is Free Perspectives of Quality

The Main Premise

Philip Crosby’s quality is free approach emphasizes on zero-defects concept and that developing quality products does not cost anything. Rather, developing quality products saves money and time (Crosby, 1979). Further, the key to producing perfect goods is through instituting preventive mechanisms rather than through inspection (reactive approaches).By identifying and dealing with the sources of problems, various costs are eliminated, for instance, warranty costs, rework costs, and inspection costs. Another key premise is to do things right the first time. This saves costs. The six-sigma approach is a quality measure in organizations that aims at achieving near perfection by reducing variation (“TQM: A snapshot of the experts,” 2002). The six-sigma approach aims at eliminating defects in the production process. The six-sigma is a data-driven approach to improving quality. Crosby’s approach and the six-sigma approach are similar in that both aim at eliminating defects in the production process. The major difference is that the six-sigma approach is data-driven, relying on statistical tools while Crosby’s approach is not data driven.

Key Requirements for Successful Implementation

The six-sigma approach requires that the organization adopt statistical tools and analysis. The statistical tools and analysis helps in determining variations in the production process. Two types of variation may occur in the production process: common variation and special variation (“TQM: A snapshot of the experts,” 2002). Common variation occurs because of chance, while special variation is assignable to a particular process or aspect in the production process. The six-sigma approach is concerned with special variation. There are four key requirements for successful implementation under Crosby’s approach. The first requirement is DIRFT, which stands for doing it right the first time (“TQM: A snapshot of the experts,” 2002). The second requirement is emphasis on prevention rather than inspection. The third requirement is emphasis on zero defects. The forth requirement is that quality be measured in terms of the price of non-conformance. The key difference is that the six-sigma approach focuses on adopting statistical tools for analysis of variation, while Crosby’s approach focuses on having it right the first time. The similarity lies on the focus to eliminate defects.

Initial Steps to Implement it

In Crosby’s case, the initial step is management commitment. The management should show commitment towards improving quality. The employees should also embrace commitment towards zero defects. Crosby (1979) asserted that quality management is about ensuring organized activities occur as planned. As such, quality management alwaysstarts at the help of the organization’s leadership. The initial step towards implementing the six-sigma approach involves implementing a statistical measure of quality. The six-sigma approach requires that there should be no more 3.4 million defects in every 1 million units, parts, or products. The major objective under the six-sigma approach is to develop a statistical measure that helps in process improvement. The similarity is both approaches lies in thee strong need for management commitment to achieving quality.



Crosby, P. B. (1979). Quality is free: The art of making quality certain. New York: McGraw-      Hill.

Godfrey, A. B., & Kenett, R. S. (2007). Joseph M. juran, a perspective on past contributions and future impact. Quality and Reliability Engineering International, 23(6), 653-663.             doi:10.1002/qre.861

Redmond, R., Curtis, E., Noone, T., & Keenan, P. (2008). Quality in higher education: The          contribution of edward deming’s principles. International Journal of Educational           Management, 22(5), 432-441. doi:10.1108/09513540810883168

TQM: A snapshot of the experts. (2002). Measuring Business Excellence, 6(3), 54.             doi:10.1108/mbe.2002.26706cab.003


Quality Methodologies