# Water budget and the Importance of Calculating a Water Budget

Question

1. What is water budget and why is it important for us to calculate? ( min 150 words
2. 0utline the factors responsible for soil properties.  Which of these factors can be attributed to human activity ( min 150 words
3. Discuss any part of the air and water resource chapter you find interesting ( min 150 words
4. Do you think that soil formation can affect more than just plants and animals? ( min 150 words)

Sample  paper

GEO 2015

## Water budget and the Importance of Calculating a Water Budget

A water budget is the store of water volume in the earth’s façade, subsurface and atmospheric compartments of the environment over a chosen augmentation of time (Baker, T. J., Cullen, B., Debevec, L., & Abebe, Y. 2015). It has to do with characterizing the flow rates and flow paths of water from one stockpile to another. The water cycle occurs when the sun drives the hydrological cycle. In this cycle, water is evaporated by solar radiation from the oceans, soil, and inland water bodies. The water condenses and falls in the form of precipitation, and then it returns to the water bodies by either ground water discharge or surface runoff.

The water budget or the water mass balance is derived or calculated for any time increment from a control volume. The formula for calculating the water budget is inflow less outflows is equal to change in storage or precipitation is equal to runoff plus evaporation and transpiration plus the change in storage (Kononova, M. M. 2013). The study assists the learner to understand the variation in water supply and the demand in space and time. It also assists in identifying the inconsistencies and constraints in the use of existing water.

### Factors responsible for Soil Properties and outline those attributed to Human Activities

According to Dahlman, C. T., Renwick, W. H., & Bergman, E. (2013), there are many factors that are attributed to the soil properties. They include the parent material which is derived from the rocks and it assists in determining the texture, coloration of the soil, and mineral composition. Secondly, relief influences the soil properties including the slope of the land. Thirdly, climate influences the formation of the soil. The climate and in particular the temperature, frost action and precipitation have a great influence on the soil formation.  The types of weathering process that occur are greatly determined by the nature of weathering processes and the intensity of the chemical and physical processes. Lastly, natural vegetation that reflects the combination of the effect that is brought up to by climate and relief. Among factors attributed to human activities include climate that is majorly affected by global warming and natural vegetation through activities such as deforestation.

### Air and Water Resource that is interesting.

I find the part of deforestation interesting and enjoyable to learn. Deforestation is described as the permanent destruction of forests in a bid to use the land for other human activities. The different activities may range from building commercial houses to greenhouse farming. Deforestation affects the climate pattern of a particular area in an enormous and vast way. The concentration of carbon (IV) oxide in the air due to cutting down of trees can force the change of climate that will have an adverse effect on plants and animals (Houston, N. A., Gonzales-Bradford, S. L., Flynn, A. T., Qi, S. L., Peterson, S. M., Stanton, J. S., … & Senay, G. B. 2013). It should be noted that trees are necessary to the water cycle and water budget. The trees absorb rain and produce water vapor which in return is released to the atmosphere. Deforestation also affects the soil through: this is through the soil erosion. The soil is washed away and thus affects its properties and vegetation hurdles.

### Effect of Soil Formation apart from Plants and Animals

There are various effect of soil formation to the earth apart from affecting plants and animals. The soil formation can determine how water is drained to the lower surface. In the drainage, transported soil include alluvial which is water transported, Aeolian which is wind transported and olluvial which is gravity transported. It also affects deposition and the textile of the soil. The soil formation therefore determines the amount of water budget (Christopherson, R. W., Hall, P., & Thomsen, C. E. 2012). The climate is affected because the soil may not be able to hold vegetation that is necessary in ensuring that weather is convenience in supporting life. In conclusion, it should be noted that soil formation doesn’t only affect plants and animals but also affect resources such as water. For example, it affects water in the rivers, oceans, lakes and other sources. In the end, it affects the water budget in the earth.

### References

Baker, T. J., Cullen, B., Debevec, L., & Abebe, Y. (2015). A socio-hydrological approach for incorporating gender into biophysical models and implications for water resources research. Applied Geography62, 325-338.

Christopherson, R. W., Hall, P., & Thomsen, C. E. (2012). Introduction to Physical Geography. Montana.

 Dahlman, C. T., Renwick, W. H., & Bergman, E. (2013). Introduction to Geography: People, Places & Environment. Prentice Hall. Houston, N. A., Gonzales-Bradford, S. L., Flynn, A. T., Qi, S. L., Peterson, S. M., Stanton, J. S., … & Senay, G. B. (2013). Geodatabase compilation of hydrogeologic, remote sensing, and water-budget-component data for the High Plains aquifer, 2011 (No. 777). US Geological Survey.

Kononova, M. M. (2013). Soil organic matter: Its nature, its role in soil formation and in soil fertility. Elsevier.

Geo 215: Urbanization Analysis, Green Options & Global Warming Strategies Part 2