Liberalism, conservatism, socialism, fascism


Explain the key characteristics and philosophical foundations (what contributed to the origins or the start of the ideology) of liberalism, conservatism, socialism, and fascism

Sample paper

Liberalism, conservatism, socialism, fascism

The art of forming a government and selecting a representative to have the power and authority to govern their regions of administration started way back in the 15th and 16th century. Since those ancient days, politics has become the order of the day controlling important aspects of today’s life. Politics controls the decision-making process of every aspect of the community welfare and well being considering that most people in the society have different opinions and ideologies of what the society needs to flourish. Thus, for the members of the society have to agree on a common ground where all party’s welfare is put into considering and is process is accomplished through politics. Notably, politics can also influence the choice of a vision of the society or an individual over others (Landa, 2010). However, there are four different but important ideologies of politics that include liberalism, conservatism, fascism, and socialism. This assignment will attempt to identify and determine factors that contributed to the origins of the four ideologies named above in politics.

Liberalism is one of the important ideologies of politics that influences the decision making of a society and those in power in general. The need to protect and enhance the freedom of individuals and group of the society to be the central problem of politics influenced the development and adoption of liberalism. It was mainly adopted in the 15th and 16th centuries to become the driving force behind the neoliberal economic policies of capitalism. The need to shape the growth and spread of globalization equally in the country forced the early people to adopt and develop liberalism in the attempt of achieving maximum economic growth (Campbell & Britannica Educational Publishing, 2010,). To most ideologists, the liberalism was a reaction to unnecessary influence and control as well as domination of American government over the lives of ordinary Americans. To them, the government should not entirely interfere with the lives of ordinary Americans but rather should focus on guiding them to achieve better living standards through equality.

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On the other hand, conservatism was a reaction to liberalism as most of those who believe in conservatism believe in equality and well-being of a group rather than individuals. This ideology was developed and adopted to fight for the happiness and prosperity of the entire society which is highly influenced by the order and the structure of society. Conservatism allows and accepts the difference the varying levels of power and authority in the society by dividing up the roles of the society to individuals to ensure that the society functions as a unit and efficiently.

Additionally, most ideologists believe that socialism just like conservatism as developed as a reaction to weak liberalism principles and ideologies. Both socialism and fascism believe in an authoritarian and nationalistic system of government and social organization where those in power and the upper-class in the society who control wages for the capitalist class. As a result, the capitalist class has to sell their skills and knowledge in the form of labor to the upper-class individual for them to get the reward in the form of wages and salaries. According to these ideologies, the economy of the society and the country, in general, must fall under the working class to bring the much-needed freedom and equality (Vincent, 2010,). These political ideologies may seem complex to many individuals but are necessary for guiding the political, social and economic foundations of a society or a country.


Campbell, H. M., & Britannica Educational Publishing. (2010). The Britannica guide to political and social movements that changed the modern world. New York: Britannica Educational Pub.

Landa, I. (2010). The apprentice’s sorcerer: Liberal tradition and fascism. Leiden: Brill.

Vincent, A. (2010). Modern political ideologies. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.

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