What is your opinion of this course? Did it meet your expectations? What suggestions can you offer for improvement of this course for future students?
Why was Martin Luther so much more successful in discussing his criticisms of the church when John Hus was not?
Why did so many disputes erupt within the Roman Catholic Church in the 1400s and 1500s? How could these problems have been solved?
Discuss the rise of the Hundred Years’ War. Select the one development related to the war that you think was most significant for the development of Europe in this time, and discuss why?
Discuss the rise of universities during the Middle Ages. Why were they established, and how do they compare to modern colleges and universities?
Why did monasteries become the most important center of European learning in the early Middle Ages? Do you think the learning systems we have in place today would have worked in the Middle Ages? Why, or why not?
What did the “five good emperors” accomplish? What made them good? Explain.
Do you think the destruction of the empire brought the stability Octavius promised? Did he save Rome by destroying the Republic?
Please choose one of the following questions to discuss:
Why do you think Alexander had so many achievements? Why do you think Alexander the Great continues to fascinate so many centuries after his death?
Do you think Romanization was beneficial? Do you think some form of it still exists today? Why do you think so?
The course provides great insights into the history detailing western culture development. The course provides an overview of the political, cultural, social and economic development in western civilization. The course fulfilled my expectations since it helped me understand the historical chronology of the developments in early western civilization to the early modern period. Future suggestions regarding the course concern a more practical and scientific approach where students spend some time in the field examining historical data or evidence.
Disputes arose within the Roman Catholic Church in the 1400s and 1500s. These disputes were the result of the Roman Catholic Church involvement in corruption and worldliness (Kerstetter, 2015). The Roman Catholic Church yielded great power over the people, which led to exploitation of the ignorant followers. The more money a person contributed to church, the better his chance of attaining salvation and going to heaven, which could only occur through church. The church engaged in venality, whereby services such as marriage annulments were bought, and selling of indulgences. These problems could have been solved if the church had acted according to the fundamental Gospel teachings, which advocate for the will of the heart, and the need to disassociate from the material wealth.
The earliest universities emerged in the 12th and 13th centuries. These universities were Bologna, Paris, Salerno, and Oxford. The earliest universities have no defined founders or date of beginning, but they just emerged slowly with time. The emergence of universities is the result of twelfth century renaissance (Haskins & Lewis, 2002). In 1100 and 1200s, Western Europe experienced an “influx of new knowledge” that can be traced to Italy, Sicily, and Arabic Scholars from Spain. The preexisting monastery and cathedral schools were overwhelmed by the new knowledge, which led to development of universities that could handle the new knowledge. Medieval universities compare to modern universities in a number of ways. Just like in the modern period, universities provided the highest level of learning. Students wore gowns during graduation. Lectures were also conducted in similar fashion to the modern period, with a master taking the role of instructing the students.
Monasteries were important centers of European learning in the early middle ages because they helped in preservation and copying of texts (Haskins & Lewis, 2002). This was key in passing knowledge from one period to the next. Monasteries also supported schools financially. The learning systems in place currently would not have worked in the Middle Ages. This is because in the Middle Ages, only men received education while in the modern ages, women are fully involved in education. In the Middle Ages, university education was meant for the rich who could afford tuition and accommodation. In the modern period, university education is more inclusive and involves even the poor.
The “five good governors” greatly expanded the Roman Empire from northern part of Britain to Dacia, Arabia and Mesopotamia (Duiker & Spielvogel, 2008). The Roman Empire also underwent consolidation and the perfection of its defense system. Administration of the Roman Empire was centralized under a provincial system that covered the whole empire as well as Italy. They are considered good because of good governance and tranquility that prevailed during their reign.
In the middle ages, Rome greatly expanded its influence and territory. This was mainly through converting non-Romans citizens into ‘Romanized’ individuals. Because of Romanization, a uniform culture evolved. There was more cohesion among citizens from various distinct communities. According to Mola (2012), Romanization greatly enhanced the development of agriculture as well as infrastructural development. The Roman culture of building cities was practiced not only in the cities but also in rural hinterland, leading to development in the rural areas. For example, grids were applied in rural landscaping. Great infrastructural developments such as construction of amphitheaters and development of roads were also achieved during Romanization (Mola, 2012). Some form of Romanization still exists today. Some modern construction designs borrow from the Romanization period. For instance, modern amphitheaters are similar to those used in early Roman period. The method of dividing rural land into grids also seems to have emerged from the early Roman period.
Duiker, W. J., & Spielvogel, J. J. (2008). Essential world history. Belmont, Calif: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning.
Haskins, C. H., & Lewis, L. S. (2002). The rise of universities. New Brunswick, N.J: Transaction Publishers.
Kerstetter, T. M. (2015). Inspiration and innovation: Religion in the American West. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.
Mola, P. J. (2012). Romanization: the materiality of an immaterial concept. The Collegiate Journal of Anthropology. Retrieved from http://anthrojournal.com/issue/october- 2011/article/romanization-the-materiality-of-an-immaterial-concept