Data and Gap Analysis and Outline


Assignment 2: Data and Gap Analysis and Outline

Part 1: Initiating Data Analysis

As you reach the completion of your research and develop the annotated bibliography, you may begin to see themes and patterns emerging from your selection of sources. Organization is of supreme importance in piecing together and writing a major research paper. A system providing easy access to logically categorized reference material in an outline sequence provides you with a very efficient tool for composing a research paper.

For this assignment, you will begin to:

Organize resources and bibliographical items.

Analyze the content of pertinent research and studies included in your bibliographies.

Formulate the commonalities and interrelationships in your resources or data as they pertain to the focus of your research paper topics.

Follow the guidelines in your textbook for reviewing and analyzing your sources from the established literature in the research paper topic.

Take note of the research question of each study, the methods used to study the question, how data samples were collected, the results, and the conclusions. Engage in a critical analysis to determine whether the studies have validity and reliability.

While reading and rereading these sources, note the themes, patterns, or other classifications that may come to your mind for organizing the resources, articles, and other materials. Another strategy is to separate those articles that support one key set of results from those articles that refute similar results.

Develop a 1- to 2-page analysis of the validity and reliability of your sources and about the themes and patterns that are emerging from the collected data.

Part 2: Gaps and Contradictions

Unlike a jigsaw puzzle, a major research paper does not usually have all the pieces that you would desire to have for a complete picture or the thorough exposition and analysis of a thesis. A few pieces are often missing, some data and results are contradictory, and some obvious questions and issues remain unaddressed in the research literature.

While completing the research papers, it is important for you to observe what is missing or absent or what can be found in your research. This assignment offers you an opportunity to analyze the data, information, and resources you have collected so far for your research area.

Analyze where the data may be incomplete and pose a method or a strategy for reaching a strong support or a confident conclusion for your paper. For example, there may be gaps in the research, the research can be outdated, or there can be conflicting research results. An example of the latter might be the inclusion of an article that addresses sociological factors involved in police shootings when your thesis addresses solely psychological factors.

Examine the data, information, and resources obtained from the research paper and analyze the following:

Explore the issues of gaps, contradictions, and limitations as they may have emerged while developing the research topic.

Determine whether these gaps can be filled and how.

Assess how these gaps or deficiencies impact the research topic and the conclusions that might be reached.

Develop this gap analysis into a 1- to 2-page document.

Part 3: Outline

An outline is an architect’s blueprint for authors of research papers. In an outline, two or more concepts or ideas are linked by words describing their relationship.

This assignment provides you with an opportunity to present through the use of an outline relationships existing within the information you have gathered so far pertaining to your research paper.

Use the outline to organize the raw data gleaned from your bibliographical research. The data should be organized to provide a template for writing the rough draft of your research paper. Your use of the outline should be aimed at achieving the following:

Organizing ideas, data, and information in a logical format

Making connections between ideas and determining the existing relationships between data

Establishing delimited sections and subsections for different topics and categories in the paper

Indicating the deductive or inferential connections between assertions and sections in research writing

Facilitating the writing process

Note: Refer to your textbook, which provides an excellent exposition of outlines.

Combine your data analysis, gap analysis, and outline in a single Microsoft Word document.

All written assignments and responses should follow APA rules for attributing sources.

Part 1: Initiating Data Analysis

Assessed the validity and reliability of the empirical studies.

Identified and described the categories of themes and patterns emerging from the body of studies.

Part 2: Gaps and Contradictions

Accurately explored the gaps, contradictions, and limitations while collecting data, information, and resources for your research paper

Accurately analyzed and clearly articulated whether you can fill the identified gaps and how.

Accurately assessed how the identified issues impact your research topic and the conclusions you might reach.

Part 3: Outline

Accurately illustrated relationships between the raw information and organized data and information in a logical format.

Organized the information to provide a template for writing the rough draft of your research paper.

Accurately established delimited sections and subsections for different topics and categories for your research paper.

Presented logically consistent, integrated, congruent, and thorough information in the outline considering your thesis statement or research question.

Wrote in a clear, concise, and organized manner; demonstrated ethical scholarship in the accurate representation and attribution of sources; and displayed accurate spelling, grammar, and punctuation.

Sample paper

Data and Gap Analysis and Outline

Part 1: Analysis of the Validity and Reliability of Sources

It is important to ensure that the sources utilized in developing a research paper have both aspects of validity and reliability. Validity refers to the soundness or credibility of the research. When evaluating the validity of research, the research examines whether the research design and methodology used are appropriate for the research (Baumgarten, 2013). There are two types of validity: internal validity and external validity. Internal validity concerns the flaws within the study that may affect the results, such as design flaws, data collection problems, and others. External validity relates to the generalizability of the research findings (Baumgarten, 2013). For instance, the researcher can examine whether the results are generalizable to a larger group basing on the sample applied. If the sample is limited, it is impossible to generalize such results. The research will largely utilize peer-reviewed sources in order to ensure reliability and validity of the sources.

There are certain themes and patterns that are already emerging from the collected data. The first theme is that interrogation methods play a significant role in influencing the likelihood of suspects giving false confessions. Highly suggestive interrogation techniques have an increased likelihood of leading suspects into making false confessions (Snook, Brooks, & Bull, 2015). Highly suggestive interrogation techniques are particularly inappropriate to minors and those in their teenage years. Another theme concerns compliant confessions. These are type of confessions where suspects admit guilt in order to gain an implied reward or avoid punishment. For instance, the interrogating officers may lead the suspect to believe that by making a guilty confession, he/she will receive a lesser sentence or fine. Another emerging theme is that presence of a mental health condition plays a significant role in leading suspects to admit guilt although being innocent. The last key theme is the admissibility of eyewitness evidence in court. False eyewitness confessions have led to the incarceration of many innocent individuals.

Part 2: Gaps and Contradictions

There are certain gaps and contradictions involving false confessions. There are concerns that seasoned inmates who are seeking legal advice often refuse to cooperate with interrogators due to mistrust (Narchet, Meissner, & Russano, 2011). The reason behind mistrust towards interrogators is that they believe cooperating with interrogators will lead to self-incrimination. There is need for research in this area to determine whether expectations of legal advice affect suspect’s cooperativeness with interrogators. In order to reach a strong conclusion with regard to the missing data, there is need to evaluate literature on confession behaviour where police hold strong incriminating evidence towards a suspect, such as video evidence.

It is still unclear why people make voluntary confessions to crimes they did not commit, holding certain factors constant such as mental illness, retardation, escaping punishment, and seeking publicity (Kassin et al., 2010). A small fraction of people have made confessions to murder charges, yet later scrutinizing of the evidence indicates that they did not commit the alleged crimes. In order to reach a strong conclusion, there is need to evaluate the evidence regarding the influence of personality traits in making false confessions. Certain personality traits can contribute towards the making of false confessions. Certain personality traits could increase the likelihood of suspect compliance leading to false confessions. Some of the personality traits that would be of interest include extraversion, contentiousness, openness, neuroticism, and agreeableness. Inadequacy of this data can lead to wrong conclusions regarding the reasons that influence suspects to make wrong conclusions.

There is incomplete data on the role of cognitive and psychological factors in contributing to false confessions. There is need for research examining the role of various cognitive processes such as reasoning, perception, attention, and learning. Research on various psychological processes can help interrogators develop a good understanding of the suspect’s vulnerability during interrogation.

In order to fill the literature gap on the influence of various cognitive factors in admissibility of guilt, there is need to conduct quantitative study. The decision to confess is influenced by various factors including cognitive and psychological factors, interrogation tactics, investigative bias, and others. It is possible to address this research gap by conducting a quantitative analysis of various cognitive elements, psychological elements such as heart rate, and emotional elements. This should focus on guilty and innocent participants. This factor may influence the accuracy of the research conclusions.

There is need for further research to establish the link between various social factors and the possibility of admission while employing various psychologically coercive interrogation methods (Safarik et al., 2012). Some social factors may increase the likelihood that a suspect will incriminate himself or herself. Some of the social factors include social isolation and need for affiliation. As such, they will react differently while subjected to stress. It is also possible to bridge the existing gap on social influences on confession by conducting experimental studies. This can help determine whether certain social factors such as isolation increase the likelihood of making confessions, whether guilty or not. This factor can influence the accuracy of the results. Since there is little information available on the issue of social influence, it is possible that the research conclusions will show biasness.

Part 3: Outline

  1. Abstract
  2. Introduction – overview of general issues concerning false confessions.
  3. Body
  4. The role of interrogation methods applied by police in influencing false confessions.
  5. The role of DNA evidence in exonerations.
  • Examination of various known reasons why people confess falsely. They include:
  1. Mental retardation
  2. Mental illness
  3. Publicity –seeking
  4. Coercion by interrogators
  5. There are three types of confessions that suspects may adopt.
  6. Compliant confessions – making a confession to avoid negative repercussions.
  7. Voluntary confessions – making a confession out of own free will.
  8. Internalized false confessions – innocent suspects come to believe that they have committed a crime following suggestive interrogation techniques.
  9. The problem presented by false confessions in the administration of justice.
  10. The influence of Miranda warnings, rights, as well as waivers in relation to false confessions.
  • The role of eyewitness evidence in admissibility of evidence and the influence on suspects to making false confessions.

Delimited sections and subsections for different topics

  1. The influence of seeking legal advice to cooperativeness with interrogation officers among seasoned offenders.
  2. Extraneous factors that contribute to the admission of guilt among innocent suspects.
  • The role of cognitive factors in admission of guilt.
  1. The role of social factors in admission of guilt among suspects.
  2. Findings
  3. Recommendations
  4. Conclusions


Baumgarten, M. (2013). Paradigm wars – validity and reliability in qualitative research. GRIN Verlag.

Kassin, S. M., Drizin, S. A., Grisso, T., Gudjonsson, G. H., Leo, R. A., & Redlich, A. D. (2010).             Police-induced confessions: Risk factors and recommendations. Law and   Human             Behavior, 34(1), 3-38. doi:10.1007/s10979-009-9188-6

Narchet, F. M., Meissner, C. A., & Russano, M. B. (2011). Modeling the influence of       investigator bias on the elicitation of true and false confessions. Law and Human           Behavior, 35(6), 452-465. doi:10.1007/s10979-010-9257-x

Safarik, Mark E,M.S., V.S.M., Burgess, Ann W,D.N.Sc, A.P.R.N., & Burgess, A. G., D.B.A.       (2012). FALSE CONFESSION vs. investigative logic. Forensic Examiner, 21(1), 8-17.    Retrieved from               docview/1239519408?accountid=34899

Snook, B., Brooks, D., & Bull, R. (2015). A lesson on interrogations from detainees: Predicting   self-reported confessions and cooperation. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 42(12), 1243-            1260. doi:10.1177/0093854815604179


False Confessions and Annotated Bibliography