Objective: To create a health promotion program for a priority population (audience). Refer to “Creating a Health Promotion Program” in your etext, Chapter 5. First determine your priority population and a health promotion plan you are creating and submit your topic to me for approval through the assignment post by 2.3.18 . Once your topic is approved, create a proposal for a health promotion program.
The proposal must be between 5 to 10 pages, excluding any graphics, and requires the following information:
Identify the population and health topic
Assess the needs of the priority population
Set the goals and objectives for the program
How will the goals and objectives be achieved
Implement the intervention
Describe how will you implement the interventions
Population and Health Issue
Teen smoking has become a serious health issue in the US and other parts of the world. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2017), about 90 percent of cigarette smokers begun experimenting in their teens. Further, about 99 percent of smokers started the habit before they were 26 years. These statistics indicate that teen smoking can be a predictor of future adult smoking rates. The statistics also indicate that among all age cohorts, adolescents face the greatest risk of acquiring smoking habits. By focusing on adolescent behaviors that lead to smoking, it might be possible to reduce significantly the future smoking rates among the general population. This would lead to a decline in diseases attributed to smoking such as lung cancer, oral cancer, bronchitis, tooth loss, and among others. This paper is an evaluation of a health promotion plan that can help in reducing smoking among adolescents.
Needs of the Priority Population
Various social and psychological needs increase the likelihood of smoking in adolescents. Khurshid & Ansari (2012) conducted a study to determine the factors that contribute to smoking among adolescents. The findings indicated that a multiplicity of factors contribute to smoking among adolescents. The psychological factors rank the highest contributors to smoking. These factors include anger issues, stress, frustrations, fear, domestic issues, and among others. Majority of adolescents admitted to developing smoking habits in order to deal with such psychological problems (Khurshid & Ansari, 2012). The second most important factor is the social factors. This is mainly the need for acceptance amongst one’s peers or friends. Another major factor contributing to smoking is personality. Adolescents have high degree of consciousness about their style. They may begin smoking to fit a particular personality.
Another factor contributing to smoking among adolescents is the taste and feeling attributed with smoking (Khurshid & Ansari, 2012). Smoking gives some adolescents a unique feeling or taste. This creates the urge to engage in the behavior on a habitual basis. Adolescents have many needs which if unfulfilled may lead to drug and substance abuse. Due to stress and peer influence, adolescents are also likely to engage in smoking. Adolescents have poor coping mechanisms for stress and thus likely to engage in drug and substance abuse. There is also the drive for experimentation, which increases the likelihood of engaging in drug and substance abuse.
Goals and Objectives for the Program
The health promotion program has several goals and objectives. The goals and objectives outline what the health promotion program ought to achieve with regard to smoking in adolescents. The following are the goals and objectives of the program.
- To reduce the percentage of adolescents and especially students who report smoking within a year.
- To increase awareness among adolescents of the health consequences associated with tobacco smoking.
- To promote the establishment of new policies and programs meant to curb smoking in schools.
- To reduce the ease of access of tobacco products around schools.
- To reduce tobacco advertisements and promotions that seeks to target the young.
- To reduce the number of teens in schools who report smoking by 30 percent.
- To influence the increase of the price of tobacco products by 10 percent.
- Reduce the number of adolescents who report exposure to secondhand smoke in public places by 50 percent.
- To provide treatment to all teens who report tobacco dependence.
Achieving the Goals and Objectives
Providing information to teens about the harmful effects of cigarette smoking will significantly help in reducing incidences of teen smoking. Providing information can encourage those who have acquired the habit to quit and discourage others from starting smoking. It is possible to achieve this by developing educational programs for youths in schools. Community programs can also help in delivering information about drug abuse to the youths. Community programs that combine sporting events can be used as opportunities to provide information to the youths about drug abuse. Such efforts can help in reducing the number of teens turning to smoking and other forms of substance abuse.
Lobbying for tax increments in tobacco products can help in reducing tobacco consumption among youths. According to Bader, Boisclair, and Ferrence (2011), increasing taxes on tobacco products, which in turn lead to high prices of cigarettes, may significantly encourage smokers to contemplate quitting smokers and discourage others from acquiring the habit. Raising taxes on tobacco products may thus help to reduce tobacco smoking among the youth. There is need for strict tobacco use regulations to prevent exposure to secondhand smoke. Currently, some states have not enacted any regulations guiding smoking in public places while others have banned smoking in restaurants, bars, and other public places.
There is need to lobby for strict regulations to control the sale and advertising of tobacco products. Teens especially those above the 18 years age bracket are a prime target for tobacco industry advertising campaigns. There is need to implement strict regulations on tobacco advertising in various mediums. Currently, cigarette manufacturers can still advertise their products in grocery stores, pharmacies, convenience stores, and other point-of-sale locations. Such advertisements especially where they are near schools may influence teens into experimenting with the products. There is need to develop strict controls of all forms of cigarette advertising especially targeting the youths. Further, there is need to curb the selling of cigarettes near institutions. Restricting access will reduce the use of cigarettes among the youths.
Implementing the Intervention
The health promotion program targeting teens will significantly help in reducing the number of teens who acquire smoking habits. The first phase of the intervention will directly aim at influencing teens in institutions to quit smoking or to discourage them from acquiring the habit. This will be done through peer education. Peer education is the sharing of important information among peers. Peer educators will engage in informal talks with other students with the aim of informing them about the dangers of smoking. Peer educators will also inform addicts about possible health centers where they may obtain professional help to quit smoking. Peer educators will engage in informal talks meant to dissuade students from smoking and to adopt behaviors that do not increase the risk of tobacco smoking. For instance, engaging in sports can help reduce the chances of smoking by keeping one engaged all the time.
Implementing the intervention will require careful selection and training of peer educators. The first step will be to identify the potential peer educators, preferably students who are highly influential among their peers. After selection of peer educators, they will undergo a one week training and development program so that they may better understand what they are supposed to do. Successful peer educators will engage in informal talks with other students during free time and after school closes. Peer educators will attempt to change student norms regarding smoking. For those who are already addicted to smoking, the peer educators will attempt to persuade them to seek professional counselling services to quit smoking.
Evaluating the Results
It is important to evaluate the results of the health promotion program. It will be possible to evaluate the effectiveness of the program by looking at the acceptance of the program among students. If there is a positive reception of the program, the chances of the program success will be higher. The results will also be evaluated based on the percentage reduction in chances of a student becoming a habitual smoker in the year that the intervention became effective. A reduction in the percentage of students who report smoking will be an indicator of the effectiveness of the health promotion program.
Another way of evaluating the results is by assessing the general awareness of the health consequences of smoking among the student population. A key goal of the program is to inform the youths about the consequences of tobacco smoking. By providing information, students will be empowered to adopt behaviors that do not lead to smoking. Large body of students who possess knowledge about the consequences of tobacco smoking will be indicative of the program success. Generally, peer education will aim at changing student behavior and norms concerning cigarette smoking. This will help in reducing the tendency of students to engage in cigarette smoking.
Bader, P., Boisclair, D., & Ferrence, R. (2011). Effects of Tobacco Taxation and Pricing on Smoking Behavior in High Risk Populations: A Knowledge Synthesis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 8(11), 4118–4139. http://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph8114118
Khurshid, F., & Ansari, U. (2012). Causes of smoking habit among the teenagers. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, 3(9): 848 – 854.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2017). Youth and tobacco use. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/youth_data/tobacco_use/index.htm