Collective Bargaining -Grievancies and Arbitration


In the past, arbitrators worked as alternative dispute resolution in the workplace. The process is still of vital importance in the labor world. They are used by public and private companies and unions in settling disputes that result in the workplace because of the labor agreements (Cooper, D., & Mishel, L. 2015). The paper seeks to answer the following hypothesis: there will be an essential difference between conflict resolution and collective bargaining between workers and the management, gender will likely predict the process of conflict resolution, age will of key while determining conflict resolution and academic qualification will likely predict conflict resolution.

Objectives of Collective bargaining

In the labor world today, collective bargaining is set to settle the working conditions and other matters that are of interest between the employer and the employees in an environment that is structured. It also assists to confront and predict through the conception of substantive and procedural roles. The bargain also helps in the promotion of democracy in the workplace and the resolution of disputes in a controlled institutionalized conduct. It can be concluded that the purpose of the bargain as reaching to a collective agreement that uphold the terms and conditions of employment.

Conflict Resolution

According to Lu, J. (2013), conflict arises when the parties in an agreement cannot reach into a collective agreement. That can make the trade union to start institute and industrial action instead of continuing with negotiation. The trade union function is to give the employees hope that their requests are being checked. The process believes that the employers are in the process of making the change to the welfare of the employees. The process ensures that the employees remain in operation therefore not affecting the smooth running of the company.

Theoretical Framework

The research will explore on the four collective bargain theories. The theories include the Marginalist-Behavioralist theory, Kuhn’s contribution, Chamberlain theory and the Webb’s model of collective bargaining (Fossum, J. A. 2014).

Marginalist Behavorial Theories of the Firm – One of the reasons for the development of trade union movement was on the management quest of expanding the markets. The moves lead to the theoretical basis of resistance to unionism by the employers. As they expanded the output, revenue and profit of the company, there was need to also reward the employees who work to ensure the success.

Common Theory of the labor movement – the commons have established a cause and effect relations in an integral fashion. That precedes the extent of market expansion, dichotomy of interest, outgrowth of competitive menaces to the final creation of protective organization. However the development and structure of the trade union movement doesn’t say anything definitive about negotiation outcome or the pattern of the conflict resolution.

The Classical Model of Collective Bargaining – it was developed by Sidney and Beatrice Webb in 1987 (Freeman, R. B., & Han, E. 2012). The study defined the key roles that the unions have in terms of bargaining the labor price. Webb describes the union as having the necessary tools such as legal enactment and mutual insurance for obtaining benefits to their members. In this approach, Webb overlooks the association and employers in the bargain process.


The research design of the study is a survey. The dependent variable of the research is conflict resolution while the independent variable is the collective bargain. The study used questionnaire in gathering of data.  The sample of the study was 310 respondents. The data analyzed used percentages and frequency counts.

Data presentation and Analysis

Hypothesis 1: The first theory stated that there will be a noteworthy disparity between collective bargaining and conflict decree.

N Mean Std. deviation Crit – t Cal – t Df P
Collective negotiation

Conflict decree



















The table showed that there was no momentous disparity between joint bargain and conflict decree ( Crit –t = 2, Cal.t 4.4, df 309, and p<0.05). The theory is thus accepted.

Hypothesis 2: The second hypothesis says that there will be notable disparity in the conflict resolution exhibited by gender (male and female respondents).

Conflict Decree N Mean Std Dev Crit -t Cal -t Df p




















The result of the study showed that there was notable difference in the conflict decree of male nad female respondents.  (Crit –t = 1.96, df = 308; P. 05). The hypothesis is wrong therefore rejected).

Hypothesis 3: There will be notable difference between age and conflict decree.

N Mean Std Dev. Crit -t Cal -t df P


Conflict Decree



















The results was of notable importance between age and conflict decree (Crit –t=1.9, Cal-t = 23.5: DF=309, P<0,050).The hypothesis is thus accepted.


The findings of the research conducted has established that the collective bargain influence the process of conflict decree. It has also showed that age is of essential on conflict decree. The research showed that sex didn’t have a difference on conflict decree process. The process of bargain results into profit maximization and thus enhances the industrial peace. In conclusion, the collective bargain should be accepted so as to enhance peace through resolving conflicts. The collective bargain to solving conflicts must be available to all the staffs in the organization.


Cooper, D., & Mishel, L. (2015). The Erosion of Collective Bargaining has widened the gap between productivity and pay. Economic Policy Institute, Washington, DC. www. epi. org/publication/collective-bargainings-erosion-expanded-the-productivity-pay-gap/. Accessed, 10.

Freeman, R. B., & Han, E. (2012). The war against public sector collective bargaining in the US. Journal of Industrial Relations, 54(3), 386-408.

Fossum, J. A. (2014). Labor relations. Mcgraw Hill Higher Educat.

Lu, J. (2013). How political are government contracting decisions? An examination of human service contracting determinants. Public Administration Quarterly, 183-209.

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