American Constitution


Based on the American “constitution,” which internal and external stakeholders, in the policy making process, possess “constitutional legitimacy” for their role in making public policy? Do entities with explicit power have more influence than those entities with implied powers in making public policy? Should they? Why or why not?

Sample paper

American Constitution

To maintain law and order in a country as well as ensuring that public resources are equally distributed among the public, the government and those in authority must design and develop policies.  Public policies can be defined as the principles of action created to oversee a particular activity in an organization or government.  Notably, policies must go through several stages before they can fully laws in a country. The policy makers must observe and embrace the constitutional legitimacy that gives them the right and acceptance of an authority particularly the governing body in a region.  In the United States, the U.S. Constitution establishes the federal and fundamental laws as well as protecting the rights of the people (John, 2011).  Therefore, the policymakers must ensure that they follow the provisions of the constitution as they make new laws or amend the old ones. Constitutional legitimacy is known to speak the truth social, monetary and political rights and it is discriminating to political requests, stability, and improvements. This assignment will attempt to evaluate the constitutional legitimacy based on the U.S. Constitution.

Internal stakeholders

The legitimacy of internal stakeholders in the policy-making process has created two ideal models in the United States. Legitimacy law grant puts more emphasis on a normal instrumental global view that looks legitimacy from the outside in, based on the political oversight, legal survey, and logical philosophies to crush the prudence out of open stakeholders.  Internal stakeholders can be supervised straight by the management or leaders. Stakeholder grant has concentrated on a deliberative-constitutive global view that tries to honest to Legitimacy from the back to the front depending on authoritative aptitude (Friedberg, 2016). This world view acknowledges regulatory tact both as unavoidable and as vital.

External stakeholders

External stakeholders are those participants who are connected in contributing their perspectives and point of view as well as knowledge in addressing the challenges and issues that are substantially important to them and the entire society or a country.  America as somewhere else, stakeholders, government develops by its crucial inside an element: the more the rulers’ energy develops over more matters, the more noteworthy the motivations of individuals to do whatever they can to integrate partners. In legitimacy of the fact that authenticity is setting particular and challenged, there is a wide comprehension that it is more noteworthy where there are elevated amounts of political consideration, support, representation, and accomplishment (Friedberg, 2016).

Explicit power largely refers to the power and mandate given to an individual or a group of other individuals or other groups and institutions. Research shows that members of an organization who are not at the bottom of the organization chart have explicit power and authority over those below them.  On the other hand, implied powers can only exist when a person or a group has the power to control other people or groups of people in the absence of any potential agreement.  Notably, in this case,  explicit powers have more influence than implied power because protocol and organizational hierarchy have to be put into consideration before making policy.  Therefore, the top management and leaders have the responsibility of leading their groups and followers in the right direction (Hollingsworth & Ybarra, 2018).  Moreover, there is need to have an official agreement, contract, constitution and definition of limits for the policy-making process to be successful. Notably, the use of explicit power helps with the coordination and integration of efforts and powers to make a successful policy.


Friedberg, E. (2016). Making Policy Education Relevant to Policy-Making. Observing Policy-Making in Indonesia, 3-12. doi:10.1007/978-981-10-2242-5_1

Hollingsworth, J., & Ybarra, S. (2018). Explicit direct instruction (EDI): The power of the well-crafted, well-taught lesson.

John, P. (2011). Making policy work. London: Routledge.


Decision Making