Category Archives: Law

Criminal Justice

Criminal Justice

Criminal Justice


All over the world, the evolution and the gradual, rapid, and inevitable change that occurs in human life and experiences has influenced a lot of things. The only way to handle humanity is to bring order and sanity among individuals. With this at stake, the different authorities and governments have gone forth to put in place the necessary machinery that will overlook the provision of justice and ensure that the laws implemented will punish criminals. Well, a good question to ask you would be why governments need to put in place systems and machinery and boards to handle criminal justice? This is with no doubt that with such in place, order, peace, harmony and the well-being of individuals is achieved.

When criminal justice is upheld, then it means crime would not go unpunished as criminals will be tried before law corps and detained in criminal facilities. While justice is enhanced, then the activities and livelihood of people in a location, district or even a state will be with order. However, the system of law must be able to take care of the citizens interests (Berk, 2021). This comes after a requirement that the system of law should clearly and properly spell out the rights and freedoms of the people. To add on this, it means that the government should always be there for the people, by the people and democratically functioning.

Similarly, scholars of law and criminologists have gone forward to look in depth about criminal justice and how its functions should be interpreted (Nowotny, 2020). Therefore, different governments have also invested highly on ways by which criminal justice has to be effectively presented. Again, to be a part of the criminal justice body, it means that individuals have a requirement of following up with all the study processes in this field. To this point, I can confidently state that it does not come from a silver platter to attain such. Therefore, learners in this field have to put up with intense learning and critically analyze different situations to attain certification to enable them work with this body.

In this paper, the discussion follows a sequence in which the justice is offered and how criminals are handled. More so, the context at which criminology has been associated with criminal justice is also discussed at large.

Related:  history assignment help


Criminal justice class

In a learning context, a class that is brought up to get educated on issues to deal with justice and crime is the criminal justice class. Also, to join such a class is a surety that one has decided to take criminal justice as a program of learning that has been accredited for by a given college. As mentioned earlier, learning or being knowledgeable about criminal justice is not that simple and has to be taken seriously.  Additionally, quite a number of topics are included in the program so that the learner should be well prepared to handle whatever things that come with the career to say (Ram, 2017). While tackling all these, this paper suggests that criminal justice students should be prepared to undertake the different programs in this field to facilitate their careers.

Criminal justice course

While talking of the different career choices, this paper addresses criminal justice. Therefore, this suggests that such assignments are directed to students undertaking programs in criminal justice. Also, while critically looking into this, as a career choice, criminal justice demands for the best as the skills being trained under this course demand proper abilities to look into situations, analyze and draw conclusions from such. Therefore, it is wise to recognize the fact that such programs like criminal justice are with no doubt pointed to practitioners of law and crime. This has to be with the example of the federal board of investigators, the lawyers, the judges, private or hired investigators and the forensics just by mentioning a few.

Relationship between criminology and criminal justice

While looking into crime and justice, this paper also fulfills the discussion of how criminal justice is associated or rather related to criminology. Describing criminology, it involves acquiring knowledge about crime. More so, considerations have it that criminology is a science in sociology too as it takes care of the social well-being of the society with all perspectives. On the other hand, criminal justice dis deep into how crime is responded to by the society at large (Završnik, 2019). Again, the composition of the system of criminal justice is the key components that build up the law and its enforcements. Additionally, the investigation of crimes, how criminals are to be punished, and how correctional facilities will change the behaviors of wrong doers.

In such cases, it is easy to recognise the fact that under criminal justice there are a number of different job types under this sector. Most likely, under this sector quite a number of careers correlate with each other say for example a psychologist in forensics being able to take work from both criminology and the justice and crime sectors. This comes as a result of the psychologist being able to evaluate the behaviours of the various criminals and at the same time taking part in the selection of the jury to handle a case.


In conclusion, the components of an integral system of justice will include those who detect crime, those who investigate into crimes and those who take part in conducting arrests on criminal activities. This therefore implies that in a criminal and justice system, jobs can be able to range as seen from different angles.

Also, while undertaking this program, the learner has to be able to have familiarized with the importance of getting knowledgeable about crime and justice. Well, the first thing that comes in mind is getting a career choice that pays best. However, there are other important considerations such as the desire to be of good help to others, being environmental flexible, and having the knowledge to identify with the rights and freedoms and the punishment of crime as spelt by the law.


Criminal Justice Homework Help


Berk, R., Heidari, H., Jabbari, S., Kearns, M., & Roth, A. (2021). Fairness in criminal justice risk assessments: The state of the art. Sociological Methods & Research, 50(1), 3-44.

Huq, A. Z. (2018). Racial equity in algorithmic criminal justice. Duke LJ, 68, 1043.

Nowotny, K., Bailey, Z., Omori, M., & Brinkley-Rubinstein, L. (2020). COVID-19 exposes need for progressive criminal justice reform.

Ram, N. (2017). Innovating Criminal Justice. Nw. UL Rev., 112, 659.

Sugie, N. F., & Turney, K. (2017). Beyond incarceration: Criminal justice contact and mental health. American Sociological Review, 82(4), 719-743.

Wexler, R. (2018). Life, liberty, and trade secrets: Intellectual property in the criminal justice system. Stan. L. Rev., 70, 1343.

Završnik, A. (2019). Algorithmic justice: Algorithms and big data in criminal justice settings. European Journal of Criminology, 1477370819876762.

Discuss the sources of funding for civil cases and consider the problems that may be encountered by a person wishing to bring a claim.

Topic :

Discuss the sources of funding for civil cases and consider the problems that may be encountered by a person wishing to bring a claim.

The civil law

The civil law was first used in Europe inside the structure of the late Roman law, and the center components of the law are systematized into a referable framework which fills in as the essential wellspring of law. Another basic feature of the law is the fact that, the civil law can be contrasted with common law systems as its intellectual framework is based on the judge-made decisional law. A civil lawsuit is different from other lawsuits such as criminal lawsuit considering that it provides a platform through which people in a state or country can seek to hold others liable for something wrong committed against them. When an individual successfully files a case where another person is held liable for wrongdoing, they are compensated for the harm resulted from the defendant’s actions or inaction (Friedenthal, Miller, Sexton, & Hershkoff, 2013). Most of the civil cases involve private wrongs such as rupture of agreement, infringement or carelessness and implementing common remedies, for example, pay, harms, and directives in the case that the defendant is found guilty.  This study will attempt to identify and describe sources of funding for civil cases as well as the challenges encountered when bringing a claim.

The sources of funding for civil cases

A civil lawsuit begins when a person files a lawsuit by giving an a fitting notification of the underlying lawful activity to another company, a court or an authoritative body. However, the case cannot go on without the plaintiff paying the fee as required by the law.  In the case that the plaintiff is unable to pay the legal fees set by the law of the country; he or she can record a claim to continue in forma pauperis. The judge has the ability to give or deny the demand to continue in forma pauperis. In the case that it is granted, the fee is waived (Bloom, 2014). Paying for a case is a major issue in any civil case process.  The expensive nature of these cases means that the financing of the case is as important as the remedy the plaintiff seeks from the defendant. However, the disputing parties are often encouraged to resolve their differences outside the court.

If the dispute cannot be resolved outside of court, the case is often decided by a judge but at a cost. The general rule of the civil case states that the loser of the case pays the winners to cost. Notably, the court has power, and it is flexible enough to determine when one party may be responsible in whole or in part of the other party’s costs. Apart from paying the attorney’s fee, the plaintiff has to pay the filing fee before the case can commence, copying fees, expert witness fee, court reporter fee and all the costs that are necessary to stage and hold a successful trial. Fortunately, one can recover all the money used in the trial as part of the judgment if one wins the case against an opposing party. Apart from incurring the cost of the trial proceedings, the plaintiff may also incur the cost of hiring an attorney thus making the attorneys fee the largest component of the plaintiff’s practical expense in pursuing a lawsuit (Sime, 2014).  The attorney’s fee is often considered separately from the costs when it comes to court proceedings.

The problems that may be encountered by a person wishing to bring a claim

Usually, there is a large amount of money and time spent on the administration of civil cases across the country. Civil justice is as important as any other form of justice, but does not get as much attention as the criminal justice since the public safety issues are not as apparent as those of a criminal case. However, both knowingly and unknowingly, the civil case affects most of the people in the country considering that it helps to protect their properties, contracts, personal injuries and any other individual daily operations.

Related: Develop Professional Résumés

Of the challenges encountered while filing a civil claim in a court of justice is the high cost of financing the case and the complexity of the legal system. As stated earlier, civil cases are funded individually which makes it difficult for low-class folks who have no enough money to cater for all the court proceedings (Contini & Cordella, 2016).  Apart from the filing fee, copying fee or expert witness fee, the plaintiff incurs the attorney fees, making a civil case one of the most expensive cases in the country.  Unlike a criminal court, the cost of court procedures and processes are incurred by the person filing the case.  There is the need for the government to ensure that civil courts are adequately and efficiently funded to make it easier for the low-income families to seek justice whenever their rights are infringed and improve their performance.

Another problem in these cases is the limited number of judges and magistrates available to preside and oversee the trial process and procedure. Therefore, these cases end up taking more time than necessary as the judges have to listen to other cases too. This is the primary reason why individuals are always encouraged to solve their differences outside the court to reduce the number of civil cases that a judge have to preside and in the process reduces the amount of time taken to decide a case.  Comparing the ratio of the number of civil cases brought in a court and the number of judges that are tasked with the duty and responsibility of presiding over these cases, it is difficult for the justice system to be effective and efficient as needed.

Another major problem is the slow motions and continuances of cases by the judges. It is no secret that cases in a civil court are hardly managed efficiently since the judges do not provide enough oversight and sorting cases and issues in the court procedures. Notably, they are hardly involved early in cases until the end of the case which in turn increases continuances.  These continuances are expensive for the clients as they have to hire their lawyers more than once while at the same time, forcing the witnesses to prepare more than once (Goldman & Hughes, 2015).  In general lack of efficiency and proper oversight of the whole process increases the cost of the whole process.

From the above-detailed research, it is correct to state that civil procedures and process are important to any other legal system in the country.  However, there is a great difference between them considering that the plaintiff has to incur the cost of filing a civil case unlike other forms of legal system.  Apart from incurring the cost, plaintiffs have to encounter major problems such as expensive procedures, inefficient and ineffective oversight from the judges as well as a limited number of judges in civil courts as they seek justice.


Bloom, L. H. (2014). The Civil Rights Cases. Do Great Cases Make Bad Law?, 137-150. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199765881.003.0008

Contini, F., & Cordella, A. (2016). Law and Technology in Civil Judicial Procedures. Oxford Handbooks Online. doi:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199680832.013.47

Friedenthal, J. H., Miller, A. R., Sexton, J. E., & Hershkoff, H. (2013). Civil procedure: Cases and materials.

Goldman, T. F., & Hughes, A. H. (2015). Civil litigation: Process and procedures.

Sime, P. S. (2014). 2. Funding litigation. A Practical Approach to Civil Procedure, 10-20. doi:10.1093/he/9780198714484.003.0107






Develop Professional Résumés


Develop Professional Résumés

In order to demonstrate an awareness of psychological career alternatives in a community setting, you will develop résumés for each of the professional experts chosen for your presentation in the Week Three discussion.  Include relevant academic and professional experience that highlights their careers, appropriate skills, and expertise. Brief job descriptions identifying the major duties associated with each relevant work experience should also be included in the résumé. The job description format should be based on the “Professional Experience”/”Relevant Experience” section in one of the sample
résumés provided below.  Each résumé should be two to three pages in length. You may use the resources available on the following web pages:

You may use additional sources for career information as long as they are credible. An example of a credible source for this information would include The Chronicle of Higher Education. Utilize at least two professional career-related sources as a basis for the information you will use to complete the required sections in the résumé. All sources must be documented in APA style, as outlined by the Ashford Writing Center.


Writing Professional Resumes


A successful Clinical Psychologist with a bias in adolescent suicide and mental health, National Speaker/Trainer, Expert Witness, and Author of various books thus contributing to scholarly literature in the field of psychology.


  • Adolescent suicide and mental health
  • Training, consultancy, and public speaking on various psychological and psycho-legal issues
  • Develop and plan Keynote Addresses as well as Workshops targeting state, national, and international conferences.
  • Develop and administer training programs that target youths with substance dependency problems and those in the juvenile justice system.
  • Provide expert testimony in legal cases involving juvenile delinquency.
  • Provide general counseling to youths with mental health issues and those at the verge of committing suicide or inflicting self-injury.
  • Author of psychological books, book chapters associated with edited volumes, and various articles.


Psychologist, National Speaker/Trainer, Consult, Expert Witness, and Author        1997 – Present

  • Develop training programs for educational professionals, mental health, and for juvenile justice.
  • Develop and plan Keynote Addresses as well as Workshops targeting state, national, and international conferences.
  • Offer consultancy services to matters involving juvenile justice.
  • Develop programs to assist youths with mental health problems and those at risk of committing suicide.
  • Author of various books and articles.

Clinical Psychologist, Trainer, Consultant and Author                                  1999 – 2000

Washington Institute for Mental Illness Research and Training

  • Involved in developing training sessions and workshops for youths showing behavioral problems.
  • Worked with justice personnel, law enforcement officials, community organizations, educators, and parents to help reform youths with behavioral issues.
  • Part of a team that developed a mental health screening tool for assessing juvenile offenders.
  • Developed a national training curriculum that provided guidance in delivery of a wide range of services including justice, mental health, and substance abuse services for juvenile offenders.

Clinical Psychologist, Project Manager, Consultant, and Trainer                              1996 – 2000

University of Washington

  • Coordinated the Juvenile Rehabilitation Administration (UW/JRA) collaboration Project at the University of Washington. This program was meant to improve the quality of mental health services to juvenile offenders with mental health issues.
  • In charge of projects related training, consultation, community assessment, and transition of juvenile offenders with mental health issues.
  • Supervised psychology interns at the institution.
  • Provided consultancy services on mental health programming, policy, and complex cases involving juvenile offenders.
  • Developed training programs for correctional employees.

Clinical Psychology Postdoctoral consultant or Trainer

King County Juvenile Detention and University of Washington                               1995-1996

  • Worked at the King County Department of Youth Services where I managed seriously mentally ill offenders.
  • Worked with young offenders having severe mental health issues.
  • Worked with Washington State Juvenile Correctional Facilities by providing training to detention officers and evaluating the quality of mental health services.


Ph.D./M.A.: Major in Clinical Psychology and Minor ibn Developmental Psychology

Wayne State University Detroit, MI.

B.A.: Major in Psychology, Personality, and Psychopathology Emphasis (1994)

University of California, Santa Barbara


  • Juvenile Offenders with Mental Health Disorders: Who Are They & What Do WE do With Them (Second Edition) (Book)
  • When To Worry: How To Tell if Your Teen Needs Help – And What To Do About It
  • Suicide among children and adolescents: we can make a difference
  • The Secret Cut: Understanding Self-Injury and Teens


  • American Psychological Association
  • American Association of Suicidology
  • American Correctional Association





Kay Redfield Jamison

The John Hopkins Hospital

Baltimore, Maryland 21287 / 600N. Wolfe Street


An established clinical psychologist and writer specializing in mental health disorders such as mood disorders.


  • Professor of psychiatry
  • Internationally respected authority on mood disorders
  • Researcher
  • Researcher in the field of mental health disorders
  • Contributing in the field of mental health disorders through numerous publications or articles

WORK HISTORY                                                                                         POSITION

2010 – Present            The John Hopkins School of Medicine                      Inaugural Recipient

The Dalio Family Professorship in Mood Disorders

Department of Psychiatry

2005 – Present            The John Hopkins Mood Disorders Center                Co-director

The John Hopkins University School of Medicine

1993 – Present            The John Hopkins University School of Medicine    Professor

Department of Psychiatry

1997                            University of St. Andrews                                          Honorary Professor

1987 – 1993                Department of Psychiatry,

The John Hopkins University School of Medicine    Associate Professor

1982 – 1983                Merton College, University of Oxford                       Visiting Senior                                                                                                            Research Fellow

1977 – 1987                UCLA Affective Disorders Clinic                              Director and Co-                                                                                                         founder

174 – 1981                  Department of Psychiatry, UCLA School of              Assistant Professor


1973 – 1974                UCLA Neuropsychiatric Institute                              Pre-doctoral Intern in

Clinical Psychology


University of California,                                             Major in Clinical Psychology (1975)

Los Angeles, California.                                             Minor in Comparative Psychology

and Psychopharmacology

University of California                                              Candidate of Philosophy         (1973)

The Maudsley Hospital                                               Clinical Studies                      (1970)

Institute of Psychiatry

University of London

University of California, Los Angeles                        M.A., Psychology                   (1971)

B.A., Psychology

Magna Cum Laude and

Departmental Highest Honors

University of St. Andrews                                           Junior Honours in Zoology     (1967)

And Neurophysiology

University of California, Los Angeles                        Psychology                              (1966)


  • Jamison, K. R. Exuberance: The Passion for Life. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2004. 7. Jamison, K. R. Nothing Was the Same: A Memoir. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2009.
  • Jamison, K. R. Nothing Was the Same: A Memoir. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2009.
  • Jamison, K. R. Introduction. Unholy Ghosts: Essays on Melancholy. Edited by N. Casey. New York: William Morrow, 2000.
  • Jamison, K. R. Culture, conformity, and mental health. In Medicine and Humanity (M. Marinker, ed.), London: King’s Fund, 2001. 107.
  • Jamison, K. R. Suicide in the young. Cerebrum, 3: 39-42, 2001.
  • Jamison, K. R. Contemporary psychology and contemporary poetry: Perspectives on mood disorders. In Crawford, R. (Ed.) Contemporary Poetry and Contemporary Science. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005. 118.
  • Jamison, K. R. and Hawton, K. The burden of suicide and clinical suggestions for prevention. Prevention and Treatment of Suicidal Behavior: From Science to Practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.
  • Other publications as well.


  • National Network of Depression
  • National Advisory Council (NIMH)
  • National Committee for the Basic Sciences at UCLA
  • The Dana Foundation, New York
  • Saks/USC Institute for Mental Health Law, Policy, and Ethics
  • Institute of Medicine: Committee on Member Pathophysiology and Prevention of Adolescent and Adult Suicide
  • Others


CareerProfiles. (n.d). Retrieved from

Counseling Psychology Resume. (n.d). Retrieved from            services/resources/all-resources/resume-examples/counseling-psychology-            resume/#primaryNavigation

PsychCareers. (n.d). Retrieved from    edfield+Jamison&t15=