Category Archives: Art

Case Study: “The Wal-Mart You Don’t Know”


Case Study: “The Wal-Mart You Don’t Know”

  1. Describe the problem faced by Vlasic. Why were they unable to oppose the sales plan put forth by Wal-Mart? Ultimately, how did responding to Wal-Mart affect their business?

  2. Was this an ethical supply chain decision on the part of Wal-Mart? Also, highlight any sustainable ethics that was involved here.

  3. What does this case tell you about how much influence a business can have with regard to its suppliers’ decisions and behaviors? What does this say about the conventional notions of the responsibility of firms for the practices of their suppliers (both in terms of individual firms and collectively)? Is it reasonable for consumers (or even regulators) to hold firms accountable?


Case Study: “The Wal-Mart You Don’t Know”

  • It operates from Bentonville, Arkansas and operates a chain of hypermarkets, discount department stores, and grocery stores. As of February 2016, the corporation had 11527 stores in 27 states, with a total of 72 banners.
  • It is a family owned business as it is controlled by Walton family and the biggest private employer with 2.2 million workers.
  • Walmart the largest grocery retail in the United States. Walmart’s reputation is for offering low prices but quality products.
  • Wal-Mart the giant retailer’s low prices have adverse effects on the companies it does business with a good example being Vlasic.
  • Wal-Mart wanted to make a statement to its customers that it is the only company in a position to sell high-quality products at a low price.
  • The fact that the firm is the biggest retailer in the world and can import cheap products from China to sell them at low prices made it difficult for Vlasic to fight. Wal-Mart pressure makes it hard to compete with them.
  • Wal-Mart refused to help Vlasic, and since the company was making so little out of their product, they were unable to continue their operations and eventually filled for bankruptcy.
  • Price wars is a common aspect of marketing in the most organization, and it is ethical. Most of the companies try to lower the prices of their goods to attract more and more customers. As a result, this was a fair fight.
  • It was also ethical for Wal-Mart to decline the request from Vlasic to help them considering that they are rival firms and assist them to be independent would have created a rivalry between the two companies.
  • A company can exert performance pressure on their supplier’s behavior considering that they have to abide by the laws, rules and regulations provided by the corporation. In the case of deviation from the initial agreement, the supplier must be held liable for their actions.
  • The company is a separate entity from its supplier and thus, it does not have a responsibility to the suppliers at all. The suppliers work independently despite the fact that they must observe the companies rules and regulations.
  • It is not reasonable for consumers to hold a business accountable at all costs. The company comes with its terms and conditions, and so does the consumer. Thus, before reaching an agreement, both sides presents their issues and go their separate ways. The company is not accountable for its suppliers.

Impact of Adverse Childhood Experience on Human Development

Developmental psychology: Behaviour across the lifespan

Impact of Adverse Childhood Experience on Human Development

Required Article

The enduring effects of abuse and related Adverse Experiences in Childhood

The research question

The study seeks to understand the impacts that abuse and related adverse experiences have on children. Also, the article addresses the impact that maltreatment has on the emotional well –being and the health of the children. The study focuses on the disturbances likelihood in a given behavior or function such as sleep disturbances and anxiety. Also, the study examines the number of comorbidities

Theoretical perspectives

The study draws from epidemiology and neurobiology evidence that state that stress in the early life such as abuse can lead to a brain dysfunction that has adverse impacts on quality and health of an individual. Even more, studies have shown that stress in an early life can result in long-term changes in brain system and circuits, (Slopen et al. 2013).

Importantly, the study draws on various studies that have shown that childhood stressors like domestic violence and abuse can lead to suicide attempts, substance abuse and depressive disorders in a child, (Shonkoff, et al.2012) According to, to Smith 1997, development and stress have a vital interaction; glucocorticoid in infants is usually not developed and, therefore, cannot respond to stress. Plotsky and Meaney 1993, further affirms that stressors in early life lead to a long term glucocorticoid increase response to stress.

            Data collection methods

In collecting data, the researchers made use of questionnaires whereby the participants were required to fill their health histories and behaviors. The questionnaire was used to obtain ACE information which included domestic violence and abuse. In analyzing the data, researchers opted to use statistical analysis. Linear aggression was used in estimating the comorbid outcome number by ACE score.

For the effectiveness of the study, the researchers could have also used interviews in collecting data. The use of interviews would have given detailed information as well as allow the researchers to observe the participants reactions when giving out information. Interviews allow the researcher to get detailed information as opposed to the use of questionnaires.

The key impacts of adverse childhood experiences on neurobiological development

Adverse Childhood Experiences leads to reduced amygdala and hippocampus. Also, the ACE results in deficits in verbal declarative memory in women who were sexually assaulted during g childhood. Besides, an increase in ACE leads to an increase in the child impaired memory, (Garner 2012). The study findings reveal that hallucinations tend to increase as the ACE increases. Usually, the symptoms are related to hippocampal alterations and function in prefrontal cortical

How impaired neurobiological development from a range of adverse childhood experiences increases the risk of physical and psychological problems across the lifespan

The ACE can have adverse effects on the physical health of a child which include hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, asthma, and obesity .stress acting via the glucocorticoids impact on the receptor of glucocorticoid on adipocytes of intra-abdominal results to increase in intra-abdominal fat which has its own mortality risk. Early stressors lead to locus coeruleus increased activity which increases the non-epinephrine release in the brain, ( al. 2006).

Therefore, substances such as alcohol and heroin decrease the locus coeruleus firing leading to psychological and physical problems in a child. Further, early stressors result in changes that are long term in peptides that regulate social attachment and pair bond, (Balistreri, 2015). Hence, the adverse experiences at an early age disrupt the ability to form attachments that are long term in adulthood which leads to psychological problems. Additionally, victims of early abuse tend to have multiple psychiatric disorders (Larkin, Felitti & Anda 2014). These disorders such as depression and substance abuse have a common etiology varying degree which is genetically modulated, (Fox et al 2015). Also, ACE can lead to trauma due to the imposed stress derived from witnessing domestic violence or been abused.

Article 2

The impact of adverse childhood experiences on an urban pediatric population

The research question

The article seeks to investigate adverse childhood experiences impacts in youths living in a low-income community. Also, the study focuses on the prevalence of categories of ACE that were endorsed in physical and psychological outcomes.

Theoretical perspectives

The research draws from studies that reveal that young people have a high risk of been affected by ACE as opposed to adults due to the impacts that community violence has on their developing systems that lead to traumatic experience.

Even more, exposure to community violence leads to posttraumatic stress such as flashbacks and nightmares in a high number of youths. Such symptoms impact emotional development, academic performance and behavior among the young people, (Flonagan et al. 2015).

Moreover, the consequences of physiological stress do not only affect mental health but also correlate with medical conditions that are non-psychological,(Burke, 2011). According to, to Huntington (1993) learning difficulties are associated with the development of anxiety, depression and bullying.

Data collection methods

As a method of collecting data, the researcher used a retrospective medical chart to review pediatric patients in Bayview Child Health Center. The documentation of the chart was done by one or more pediatricians to minimize errors. Also, the study used statistical analysis in analyzing data. As opposed to use of questionnaires for data collection used in Anda, use of retrospective charts can be more efficient and accurate compared to questionnaire; as the participants would be more willing to disclose their problems to the health workers as opposed to researchers. However, use of medical chart to collect data is prone to errors when reviewing the charts.


The study findings support the Anda et al findings that adverse childhood experience leads to negative physical and psychological outcomes among pediatric population. Further, the study confirms that ACE can lead to obesity, depression and anxiety which may affect the child health.


As opposed to Anda et al study this study findings indicate that the number of participants exposed to one or more ACEs was higher than the number in Anda et al study. Even more, the study findings reveal that there was an increase in learning problems among children with at least four ACEs compared to children who did not have addition, the research concludes that there was an increase in adverse childhood experiences in urban communities that had high case of violence.

Article 3

The Prevalence of Adverse Childhood Experiences in the lives of Juvenile Offenders

Research question

The article research question is on the impacts of adverse childhood experiences in the juvenile offenders’ lives. The study examines the prevalence of ACEs in juvenile offenders found in Florida.

Theoretical perspectives

The research draws on the findings of Dube et al, 2001 which indicate that there’s a high prevalence of ACEs in particular populations. ACE has had negative consequences such as chronic diseases and chromosome damage (Danese 2014). Moreover, the study draws on studies that have shown that ACEs scores are linked to risky sexual behaviors. Importantly the study draws from (Felitti et al 1998) study that affirms that there is a high possibility of ACEs leading to adverse effects in adulthood for as child who has experienced four ACEs as compared to those who have no ACE exposure.

Data collection methods

The study used secondary data analysis to collect data; the researchers conducted a secondary analysis of PACT assessments undertaken in Florida. Therefore, the study did not involve any primary data. Compared to Anda et al., use of questionnaires in collecting data, the use of secondary data for the study is easier and faster. However, reliance on secondary data may lead to bias due to missing information as opposed to the use of questionnaires where the researcher can get detailed information.


The research affirms the Anda et al. study that ACE can lead to trauma among children who are abused. The research findings indicate that adverse childhood experience increases the chances of been involved in juvenile as well as high chances of re-offense, (Baglivio, 2014).  Contrast

In contrast with Anda et al. research, the study reveals that females are more exposed to  ACE as compared to males especially the Ace composite score and sexual abuse.

How Adverse Childhood Experience can increase mental health issues

The adverse childhood experiences can result to mental health problems in adulthood. The Anda et al. article shows that a child that is exposed to domestic violence may inhibit the mental development of a child which is likely to lead to mental health problems,(Anda et al. 2006).

On the other hand, Burke et al. article point out due to the early life exposure to abuse in a child, a child is likely to experience depression at an early stage of life which may lead to trauma; increasing the risk of mental health problem in later development stages,(Burke,2011).

Further, the Baglivio et al. article reveal that adverse childhood experiences lead to trauma in juvenile offenders, due to the trauma the child tends to develop mental health problems increasing the chances of repeating the offense,(Baglivio,2014).

To conclude, the three articles demonstrate that adverse childhood experience has negative impacts on child psychological and physical problems. Additionally, the articles show that an adverse childhood experience has the potential to increase mental health issues at a later development stage.


Anda, R. F., Felitti, V. J., Bremner, J. D., Walker, J. D., Whitfield, C. H., Perry, B. D., … & Giles, W. H. (2006). The enduring effects of abuse and related adverse experiences in childhood. European archives of psychiatry and clinical neuroscience, 256(3), 174-186.

Baglivio, M. T., Epps, N., Swartz, K., Huq, M. S., Sheer, A., & Hardt, N. S. (2014). The prevalence of adverse childhood experiences (ACE) in the lives of juvenile offenders. Journal of Juvenile Justice, 3(2), 1.

Balistreri, K. S. (2015). Adverse Childhood Experiences, the Medical Home, and Child Well-Being. Maternal and child health journal, 19(11), 2492-2500.

Burke, N. J., Hellman, J. L., Scott, B. G., Weems, C. F., & Carrion, V. G. (2011). The impact of adverse childhood experiences on an urban pediatric population. Child abuse & neglect, 35(6), 408-413.

Danese, A., & Tan, M. (2014). Childhood maltreatment and obesity: systematic review and meta-analysis. Molecular psychiatry, 19(5), 544-554.

Flanagan, J. C., Baker, N. L., McRae-Clark, A. L., Brady, K. T., & Moran-Santa Maria, M. M. (2015). Effects of adverse childhood experiences on the association between intranasal oxytocin and social stress reactivity among individuals with cocaine dependence. Psychiatry research, 229(1), 94-100.

Fox, B. H., Perez, N., Cass, E., Baglivio, M. T., & Epps, N. (2015). Trauma changes everything: Examining the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and serious, violent and chronic juvenile offenders. Child abuse & neglect, 46, 163-173.

Garner, A. S., Shonkoff, J. P., Siegel, B. S., Dobbins, M. I., Earls, M. F., McGuinn, L., … & Wood, D. L. (2012). Early childhood adversity, toxic stress, and the role of the pediatrician: translating developmental science into lifelong health. Pediatrics, 129(1), e224-e231.

Larkin, H., Felitti, V. J., & Anda, R. F. (2014). Social work and adverse childhood experiences research: Implications for practice and health policy. Social work in public health, 29(1), 1-16.

Shonkoff, J. P., Garner, A. S., Siegel, B. S., Dobbins, M. I., Earls, M. F., McGuinn, L., … & Wood, D. L. (2012). The lifelong effects of early childhood adversity and toxic stress. Pediatrics, 129(1), e232-e246.


Slopen, N., Kubzansky, L. D., McLaughlin, K. A., & Koenen, K. C. (2013). Childhood adversity and inflammatory processes in youth: a prospective study. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 38(2), 188-200.

Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. ~World Health Organization, 1948


Essay Topic

Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.  ~World Health Organization, 1948

Discuss the above statement giving consideration to the various points of view of diverse community groups.



Most individuals associate health with the physical well-being of the body. The ‘physical health’ is directly related to the body, which most people associate to be the definition of health. The World Health Organization (WHO) (1948) defines health as a “state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity” (p. 2).  However, there exist different definitions of health which reflect particular community beliefs about health. Some communities such as the Aborigines attach spiritual well-being as part of being healthy, an aspect which is overlooked by WHO’s definition of health. Other communities especially in Asia understand health as the ability to maintain energy balance in the body. This paper will dwell deeper into the different definitions of health from the standpoint of diverse communities.

In the U.S., the World Health Organization’s definition of health is the commonly accepted definition. The World Health Organization’s definition of health has been considered rational over time due to its focus on more than one aspect of health. For instance, the definition focuses on the physical, mental and social aspects of health. The WHO also identified a number of prerequisites to health. These include food, shelter, peace, education, income, a stable ecosystem, sustainable resources, and social justice and equity. The physical aspects of health encompass the physical well-being or the functioning of the body. This may be in terms of physical fitness, nutritional status, physical capacity, and good immune system. The mental aspect of health involve the ability to identify ones strengths and weaknesses, ability to cope with stress, and being a productive member of society. The social aspect refers to the ability to cordially interact and maintain relations with others.

The World Health Organization’s definition of health is often criticized due the use of the word “complete”, which may not be possible in a number of cases. It may not be possible for an individual to be in a complete state, yet the individual may still be healthy. For instance, considering a person who has lost a limb through amputation, such a person may not be complete in the sense of physical well-being. Though still, such as person may be considered healthy if he/she is not in any form of pain and has recovered from the amputation. The definition of health also includes the concept of wellbeing. Wellbeing involves the perceptions of individuals concerning their lives. Wellbeing is a much broader term that encompasses a number of aspects in an individual’s life. In addition, the WHO’s definition does not take into account the changing health needs of individuals especially with respect to their age.

The criticism leveled against this definition is only in the use of the word “complete” as it may not be possible to achieve such a state. In the recent period, the WHO recognizes health as a cumulative state, one that is supposed to be promoted throughout an individual’s lifespan. The definition encompass the three basic aspects of health in humans, that is, the physical aspect, mental aspect, and the social aspect. As such, the definition is multidimensional and thus relevant even in modern use.

Other definitions of health are also available. Bircher (2005) defines health as “a dynamic state of well-being characterized by a physical and mental potential, which satisfies the demands of life commensurate with age, culture, and personal responsibility” (p. 355). This definition of health takes into account the changes in health needs of individuals as they advance in age. Thus even aged persons who can be capable of satisfying their various personal demands can be termed as healthy, irrespective of whether they are considerably weaker than when they were younger. This is not the case with the WHO’s definition of health which emphasize health as a ‘complete’ state of wellbeing. The Meikirch model of health asserts that health reflects an individual’s wellbeing that is derived from the interaction of a number of factors such as personal potentials, life demands, and environmental and social factors (Bircher & Kuruvilla, 2014). The model’s definition is similar to WHO’s definition in that it encompasses the physical, mental and social aspects of health.

The U.S. lays emphasis on the three aspects of health outlined by the WHO’s definition; that is the physical, social and mental health of individuals. The physical aspect of health pertains to the normal functioning of the body system. There are a number of factors considered in determining physical well-being. These factors include fitness, Body Mass Index, and the working of the various organs (Goodacre, Collins, & Slattery, 2013). In order to maintain sound physical fitness, individuals must exercise regularly and eat a balanced diet. The social aspect pertains to the ability of an individual to interact well with others in the community. Human beings are social in nature and hence must learn how to interact with others. Interacting well with other individuals enhances good social health. The mental aspect refers to the ability to make sound decisions and cope with challenging situations in life. Mentally sound individuals should also be able to make positive contribution to the community (Goodacre, Collins, & Slattery, 2013).

The Chinese consider health to be an unrestricted or free flow of subtle energy through the body. Chinese medicine emphasizes on harmony or balance between the various energy systems in the body as the key to being healthy. Disharmony in the energy system is thought to cause diseases or illnesses. Traditional Chinese medicine lays emphasis on the concept of Qi, Yin and yang to describe health. Qi refers to the body’s vital energy, while yin and yang represent the forces that sustain existence and all opposite elements. As mentioned earlier, Qi is a form of energy and is universal. Since Qi is a form of energy, it contains all the characteristics of energy. According to Chinese medicine, a happy and healthy individual is the one who maintains harmony in all aspects of Qi. Qi is always in a constant state of transformation within the body (Kohn, 2011).

In Chinese medicine, bacteria and viruses are not the only causes of disease; rather, a state of disharmony among the various elements (yin and yang) which disrupt Qi can lead to diseases or ill-health among individuals. Chinese medicine acknowledges the fact that disease-causing organisms are present everywhere. When the body has harmonious and unrestricted energy flow, it is able to develop resistance to the disease-causing microorganisms. However, if the energy channels become blocked, resistance to the pathogens is reduced, causing disease or illness. This is why in Chinese medicine treatment often involves methods such as acupuncture, yoga, meditation, and other methods aimed at maintaining harmony among the various aspects (Seaward, 2011).

The indigenous Australians have different view on health compared to the WHO’s definition. The Aboriginals place great emphasis on community welfare in defining health. The indigenous Australia’s definition of health also includes a spiritual aspect of wellbeing. According to Berman et al., (2014), the Indigenous Australians define health as not just pertaining to the physical wellbeing but also pertaining to the spiritual, social, cultural, and emotional wellness of the entire community.  The Medical Research Council of Australia in conjunction with Aboriginal Health has accepted the aforementioned definition of health (Berman et al., 2014). The council integrates the community’s values, principles, and belief matters concerning health. Although the health services are delivered to individuals, the overall goal is to improve the lives of individuals with respect to the entire community. The health of particular individuals is assessed in terms of the community in its entirety.

In the Aboriginal concept of health, individuals are able to achieve full productivity by leading healthy lives, enabling them to be useful members of the community. If a majority of the individuals within the community are healthy, then the entire community becomes productive. This is because each individual contributes to the well-being of the whole community (Talbot & Verinder, 2009). There are a number of distinct features in the Aboriginal community’s understanding of health. First, the Aboriginals places emphasis on community control whereby each community is expected to solve any emerging health issues. The community is in charge of the decision making processes in matters concerning health. Second, the community’s understanding of health takes a holistic approach. This, as earlier mentioned involves taking health issues afflicting individuals as matters concerning the entire community. Third, there is the element of cultural respect whereby the specific cultural believes, values and norms of the society have been integrated in understanding of health.

The Australian Aboriginals’ definition of health brings to light the interplay of multiple aspects that are involved in defining an individual’s health; cultural factors, personal factors, social factors, interpersonal factors, environmental factors, and spiritual factors, all of which determine the health of individuals (Talbot & Verinder, 2009). It reveals the multiple ways in which the health of individuals can be improved through community programs, government programs and through formulation of appropriate policies. The government and health policy makers are able to formulate better health guidelines when they are provided with data derived from the local population. Through a keen analysis of the local community, the government has been able to identify a number of key concerns within the health sector. For instance, the role of education in improving the health of the community, importance of social support networks, physical environment, importance of culture and kinship, and among other concerns (Talbot & Verinder, 2009). Improving on these would help in promoting the health of Individuals.

In India, the understanding of health takes into consideration the mental, social, physical and spiritual aspects (Micozzi & McCown, 2013). These aspects describe the health or wellbeing of individuals. Health can also be defined in other ways for instance: it is the ability of individuals to abide by the outlined societal norms and values. Health is thus a complex issue, as evident from the multiple definitions and understanding of the concept in diverse communities. An individual may be in perfect physical condition, and yet be in a bad mental status. On the other hand, an individual can be disabled yet be of sound mind. Health is thus a complex issue.

India’s concept of health is different from that of the western world in that it emphasizes more on the mind, body, and spirit (Micozzi & McCown, 2013). Health and healing are thus determined by the spirit and body’s energy. India’s concept of health also emphasizes more on spiritual consciousness as an important determinant of the healing process. India’s practice of health is similar to China’s practice in that in both cases, there is a fundamental belief that the body’s energy system is responsible for maintaining the well-being in individuals. Any state of disharmony is expected to result to disease or illness. India’s healing traditions relied heavily on practices such as meditation, yoga, and other movement activities which were meant to restore the normal functioning of an individual’s nervous system. The healing traditions normally revolve around the mind, body, and spirit (Micozzi & McCown, 2013). India’s health practices focused on prevention strategies as well as curative strategies to help reduce suffering.

Most communities understand health as an interaction of physical, mental, social and spiritual aspects. In the U.S., health is understood to be a “complete state of physical, mental and social wellbeing” as defined by WHO. Some of these aspects of health are echoed by Indian and Australia’s Aboriginal communities. A major difference is that the Indian community associates spirituality with health which is not common in the U.S. A slight difference in Australia’s Aboriginal understanding of health is their particular emphasis on health as a communal aspect. The Aboriginal’s and Indian’s understanding of health share similarities in their belief on spiritual aspect of wellbeing as critical to defining health. They also share other aspects which include the physical, mental, and social wellbeing. A striking difference between the two concepts lies in the healing system. Indians hold the belief that healing can occur when the body’s energy system is in balance. The Chinese understanding of health places emphasis on flow of energy in the body, disregarding the physical, social and mental aspects present in other communities. The different definitions arise due to cultural diversity whereby different cultures hold different beliefs and practices as handed down through generations.

In conclusion, health encompasses three basic aspects: the physical, mental, and social wellbeing. Many of the diverse community groups understand health in terms of the three aforementioned elements. Nonetheless, some of the diverse community groups may include additional aspects in the definition and understanding of wealth. Certain community groups include spiritual wellbeing as part of their understanding of health while others believe in community wellbeing as part of the definition of health. Generally, health can be defined in different ways based on the diverse community groups and their understanding of various issues that affect human beings. In line with this, diverse community groups have distinct ways of treating various ailments occasioned by the different understanding and definition of health. For instance the Asian community holds a strong belief about disharmony of the various body elements as the main cause of disease or illness. Thus communities have different understanding and definition of health.


Berman, A. et al., (2014). Kozier & Erb’s Fundamentals of Nursing Australian Edition. Pearson Higher Education AU.

Bircher, J. (2005). Towards a dynamic definition of health and disease. Med. Health Care Philos,            8(3): 335-41.

Bircher, J., & Kuruvilla, S. (2014). Defining health by addressing individual, social, and   environmental determinants: New opportunities for health care and public health. Journal            of Public Health Policy35(3), 363–386.

Goodacre, S., Collins, C., & Slattery, C. (2013). Cambridge VCE Health and Human        Development Units 1 and 2 Pack. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Kohn, L. (2011). Health Maintenance in Ancient China. International Journal of Medical             Science, 8, 26 -42.

Micozzi, M. S., & McCown, D. (2013). Vital healing: Energy, mind and spirit in traditional        medicines of India, Tibet and the Middle East – Middle Asia. London: Singing Dragon.

Seaward, B. L. (2011). Health and wellness: Journal workbook. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and          Bartlett Learning.

Talbot, L., & Verinder, G. (2009). Promoting health: A primary health care approach. Sydney,   N.S.W: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone.

World Health Organization. (2006). Constitution of the World Health Organization – Basic          Documents, Forty-fifth edition, Supplement.

Refugees and Risk of Mental Illness & Suicide Rates

Refugees and Risk of Mental Illness & Suicide Rates

Refugees and Risk of Mental Illness & Suicide Rates

Nature of the issue

There is need to address refugees in Australia. Mental illnesses encompass a range of mental health conditions. Some of the major mental health disorders which afflict refugees include dementia, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, eating disorders, and among other psychotic disorders. If these disorders are not checked, they may increase suicides rates among the population. According to the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) (2011), an average of 2,000 Australians commits suicide every year. Among the high risks groups include those from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds. This means that based on the data collected over the past years, refugees are at a higher risk of committing suicide. Even though mental illness & suicide rates can affect the entire population, cultural influences have a perverse and profound impact on the outcomes of mental illnesses such as anxiety disorders and mood disorders. A significant number of refugees suffering from mental illness lack access to treatment or fail to seek treatment due to various reasons.

Outline the evidence base relating to this health indicator

Refugees from diverse backgrounds experience psychological distress due to various issues affecting them such as war, separation from family members and friends, physical change of place of residence and stress related to adapting to new cultures. Severe psychological distress affects their mental health which if not treated can lead to development of mental illnesses. According to Triggs (2013), closed detention leads to mental illnesses especially in children among immigrants and refugees in Australia. The research notes that there are increased cases of self-harm or suicide and mental illnesses among refugees held in detention centers. The research indicates that mental illnesses are the commonly reported ailments afflicting asylum seekers in Australia. The report also indicates that mental distress is positively correlated to refugees being held in concentration camps or detention centers. Mandatory detention for asylum seekers is seen as the major factor contributing to deterioration of their mental health.

Deans et al. (2013) conducted a detailed study into the forms of illnesses reported by refugees and immigrants in the Royal Darwin Hospital. The retrospective observational study was conducted over a one year period in 2011. According to the results, the emergency department wing of the hospital reported a total of 518 attendances by asylum seekers mainly from Afghanistan and Iran. A total of 187 refugees (24.3%) were diagnosed with mental health problems, 138 of them reporting incidences of self-harm. Mental health problems were recorded as the most prevalent among the refugees, with a diagnostic rate of 24.3% as earlier mentioned. Other studies also support the above results. Procter, Leo and Newman (2013) conducted a retrospective study into the causes of death among asylum seekers. The study found that suicide and self-harm were the major causes of death among asylum seekers.

Comparison between the chosen community and the general population

There is sufficient evidence indicating that refugees or asylum seekers are more likely to suffer from mental illness and attempt suicide compared to the general population. Refugees make up the vulnerable population in terms of mental health. Certain factors predispose them to mental illnesses and suicide. These factors include war, loss of loved ones, torture, changes in social-economic status, language barriers, and lack of employment and among other experiences which significantly contribute to development of mental health issues. On the other hand, the general population is not afflicted by such problems which translate to less mental health issues and cases of suicide. Refugees from conflict zones are often affected by posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) due to exposure to traumatic and life changing events. A meta-analysis conducted by Steel et al. (2009) indicated that about 40 percent of refugees from conflict zones experience PTSD symptoms.

Studies indicate that refugees are at a higher risk of suffering from mental health problems and end up in suicide compared to the general population. According to Steel (2009), studies involving refugees and the general population as the control group give substantial evidence on a higher prevalence of mental illnesses and cases of suicide among refugees. These trends were not only reported in Australia, but also across the entire world. The refugees are therefore vulnerable to mental illnesses due to their earlier encounters with traumatic events. The general population in Australia is less exposed to traumatic events and hence less mental health problems. In addition, it is comparatively difficult to address the health issues afflicting refugees compared to the general population. This is due to various challenges experienced in the process such as language barrier, discrimination and lack of adequate resources to seek help or specialized treatment.

How the aspect of diversity is impacting on these identified differentials

Diversity has a significant impact on the outcomes of health illnesses and cases of suicide in Australia. Culture plays a crucial role in the mentioned differential. Racial discrimination is one of the aspects that have a significant impact on the mental health of refugees. Racial discrimination occurs when an individual is treated differently due to their ethnic origin, race, descent, colour, and sometimes immigration status among other factors. Some cultures may label people from a different cultural background as inferior or develop stereotypes towards them. This has a negative effect on the mental health of those who are negatively stereotyped. Studies indicate that individuals who experience racial discrimination are likely to develop mental health problems due to the stress associated with the experiences. According to Irving & Mosca (2010), there is a link between racial discrimination and psychological distress. Racial discrimination leads to psychological distress which ultimately leads to anxiety and depression.

Other aspects of diversity such as language barriers also tremendously impact on the mental health of refugees. According to Steel et al. (2009), there are strong links between language barrier and the risks of experiencing stress and mental health problems. Adapting to new cultures can be a difficult experience to refugees. This is particularly so when there exist wide variations in the language, values, customs and cultural beliefs held by the two factions. Refugees who experience language barriers are likely to be socially isolated, which worsens their predicament. In addition, refugees with language challenges are less likely to seek help on their mental health problems.  It is difficult for majority of refugees to adopt the culture of the general population. These factors increase the risk of suicide among the refugees.  Refugees who receive community support are able to quickly integrate into the new culture due to the support they receive. Family cohesiveness is also important in reducing the risk of stress.

Different cultures respond to situations in various ways. Refugees suffering from mental illness are confronted by stigma which varies depending on the type of culture. Stigma is defined as disapproval or mark of shame attached upon some individuals in the community. Stigma has a significant impact on refugees suffering from mental health issues. Some cultures perceive mental health issues in a negative manner. Certain cultures associate mental health problems with witchcraft or curses. People suffering from mental health problems in such communities are afraid to come up in the open to receive treatment due to fear of being stigmatized. The different cultures affect the way refugees seek support services, and hence impact their health.

Potential causes of disparity between refugees and the general population

There are a number of reasons why there exists many disparities between refugees and the general population in Australia. Disparities existing between the two factions can be traced to the entire process of migration, personal factors and government policies relating to the well-being of refugees. These factors affect the health of the refugees as well as access to treatment facilities. Environmental determinants also potential causes of disparities between refugees and the general population. Language barriers area also potential causes of disparities. Refugees may at times find themselves in foreign countries where they do not understand the local dialect. This hinders their ability to obtain health services, engage in productive activities such as starting small businesses and hinders their ability to develop social relations with the local individuals. The different culture also causes disparities since refugees often experience culture shock. Refugees may take long to adapt to the local culture, hindering their ability to engage in meaningful tasks.

Refugees often live in marginal situations which significantly curtail their ability to gain financial independence. This means they are much vulnerable to unforeseen issues in the environment. Migrants lack the financial muscle required to start own businesses unlike the general population which have access to loans from banks and other financial institutions. It is difficult for refugees to acquire loans or funding for their businesses since they lack collateral for obtaining loans. This makes it difficult to start or expand businesses. According to Irving & Mosca (2010), refugees are discriminated against by the government during formulation of national policies. They are also disregarded in national exercises such as health data collection. This means that during the formulation of national health policies they are not taken into consideration. This contributes to disparities in the health of refugees and the general population. In addition, there is little research available on the health risks associated with refugees and in the challenges in general faced by refugee communities. Lack of relevant research hinders implementation of robust policies which can change the plight of refugees.



Australian Bureau of Statistics (2011). Causes of Death Australia, 2011. Retrieved from:   

Deans, A. K., et al. (2013). Use of Royal Darwin Hospital emergency department by         immigration detainees in 2011. The Medical Journal of Australia, 199(11): 776 – 778.

Irving, G., & Mosca, D. (2010). Future Capacity Needs in Managing the Health Aspects of          Migration. Background Paper for World Migration Report 2010, International            Organization for Migration.

Procter, N. G., Leo, D. D., & Newman, L. (2013). Suicide and self-harm prevention for people in             immigration detention. The Medical Journal of Australia, 199(11): 730 – 732.

Steel, Z., Chey, T., Silove, D., Marnane, C., Bryant, R. A., & van Ommeren, M. (2009).   Association of torture and other potentially traumatic events with mental health outcomes             among 49 populations exposed to mass conflict and displacement: A systematic review     and meta-analysis. JAMA, 302, 537-549. doi: 10.1001/jama.2009.1132

Triggs, G. (2013). Mental health and immigration detention. The Medical Journal of Australia,    199(11): 721 – 723.



Historicism Project-Influence of Historic Costume on Cotemporary Fashion Design


Final Project: Historicism


  1. To demonstrate student knowledge of the influence of historic costume on contemporary fashion design.

  2. To demonstrate student ability to use primary sources to determine which period of historic costume influenced a particular style of contemporary dress during the twentieth century.

  3. To explain (through analysis of current themes or trends in society) why students believe the historic style was used by the contemporary designer.

Historicism Project-Influence of Historic Costume on Cotemporary Fashion Design

Dandy era in fashion

The Dandy fashion on the right is representative of the same which was common in the 19th century. Dandies were more concerned about their mannerisms and physical appearance. As seen in picture on the left, dandy style was characterized by excessive laces, velvet and jewelry. On the right, it is possible to see impeccable tailoring, just line in the historical period. Contemporary designers are inspired by the standards dandy dressing established – standards of quality and attention to all details such as stitching and finishing.

1800’s Inspiration: Victorian’s Bridal Fashion

The Romona Keveza Spring 2014 bridal collection pays homage to  the victorian era bridal fashion.  The wedding dress on the right was inspired by Queen Victoria’s Bridal fashion popular in the 1800s. The white wedding dress on the left was common in the 1800s.  The wedding dress on the right resembles the blush gown common during the Victorian era.

Strategic Management-Executive Summary


The executive summary is a critical aspect of this assignment. Your ability to condense and highlight critical information about your chosen company to investors will determine whether they decide to invest in you and your company or not. 

Chapter 4, “The Executive Summary,” pages 53–66, provides information about writing the executive summary. You may write either a synopsis or a narrative summary. Pay particular attention to the:

Executive Summary Plan Preparation Forms on pages 58–61.

Sample Plans on pages 62–66.


Strategic Management

Executive Summary

Dependable Nurses Staffing Agency is a start-up company that focuses on offering staffing services across the United States. The company operates from its central phoenix office, where it ensures the recruitment of the most qualified medical professionals and connects them to health care organizations, nursing homes, institutions, or individuals in need of their services. The organization always strive to exceed customers’ expectation by breaking barriers and changing the game. The organization’s main strength is identifying the most qualified medical professionals from the workforce and hook them to a job that matches their qualifications and experience. The company earns a competitive advantage in the market by partnering with medical professional training colleges and institutions. By partnering, health care organizations offer the best working environment, compensation, and a high level of workers development and talent management. This ensures that the organization has the best employees to supply to the best employers. The organization also communicates on the most marketable medical areas of specialization to their training partners to ensure that they produce viable in the market.

Dependable Nurses Staffing Agency operates in a competitive industry that is characterized by a shortage of qualified professionals. There are generally new nursing positions opening but with no enough professionals to fill in the open position. The organization has employed an operational strategy to take advantage of this scenario. Besides partnering with training institutions, the organization also outsources nurses outside the country.  This makes it a more reliable agency in providing the needed employees by its customers all through. The company ensures it always has employees to fill in the new positions. Its main objective in this competitive market is to expand its market share in both employee and employer fields. The company will also employ different marketing strategies to promote its services. This will help the company earn its market share and create its ground in the market already dominated by giant and older staffing agencies. In its marketing strategy, the company will focus on young medical graduates aged below 35 and target a salary that ranges from $48000 to $71000 annually, ready to work anywhere in the country, and with a high level of professionalism, empathy, and care. The company will also target organizations relying on staffing agencies to fill their work position.

The company is anticipated to grow at a very high rate. Being a service providing company, it does not require a lot of investment to make things operational. It only needs an effective information system that includes internet connection, computers, telephones, and the tight human resource management application software commonly used by the recruitment agency. The company is anticipated to make an average revenue of around $75000 per month for the first year of its operation. Its average monthly expenses are anticipated to be about $42900 per month. This results in an average net monthly profit of around $24250 after other deductions. The company is expected to break-even and start recording profit in its first month of operation. It has embraced the best possible strategies to reduce its expenses to achieve its financial goals. Among them is energy conservation by employing proper natural lighting, energy-conserving bulbs, and switching off lights when not needed. The company anticipates making a total capital investment of around $150000 in the first year. However, it expects to keep on growing with time to register a healthy financial ground. The company anticipates having working capital of around $1415403. This is projected to decline slightly in the second year and continue increasing year after year for the next three years. By the fifth year, the company is anticipated to record a working capital of around $5295148. The company’s financial ratios also demonstrate a strong company’s financial ground. The company’s current ratio in the first year is anticipated to be above ten. This may keep on fluctuating all through but remain high. A similar situation will be expected on other financial factors such as return on investment, return on assets, and sales return.  The company currently has a debt of $50000. The company expects to sell some of its shares to investors to raise some of the needed capital. The company wishes to use a mixed capital source but maximize equity as the primary source of its investment. This will help in reducing the risk of losing the company’s investment to creditors. The company debt-to-equity ratio is thus anticipated to decline with time. Dependable Nursing Staffing Agency will be a good company to invest with as it is expected to grow exponentially, as the demand for medical staff keeps increasing with time. With a good source of reliable professionals and high quality of services, the company will manage to beat its competitors to increase its market shares in the United States extensively.