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Adverse Trend and Data Management


An elderly patient has been admitted to the medical/surgical unit from the local nursing care facility. The new lab results in her electronic health record (EHR) indicate that she has methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in her urine. She is placed on contact precautions per the hospital guidelines.

The health care provider arrives to examine her new patient and inquires about the need for contact precautions. The nurse explains the lab results reveal the patient has MRSA in her urine. The health care provider states that she reviewed the patient’s lab results in the emergency room and the urine results were normal. The unit coordinator reveals to the staff nurse and nurse manager that this is the third incident this month of lab results being uploaded to the wrong patient’s EHR when admitted from the emergency department.

Write a 1,050 to 1,400-word paper based on the case study in which you:

  • Analyze the adverse trend, including how it affects patient care.

  • Evaluate the data that needs to be collected, reviewed, and applied in the decision-making process to address the adverse trend.

  • Evaluate the information system methods that will be used to collect the data needed in the decision-making process, including the source(s) of the data.

  • Evaluate the information technology and tools needed in each step of the decision-making process.

  • Evaluate any regulatory, legal, ethical, political, sociocultural, and financial issues related to the data and information technologies that will be used in the decision-making process.

  • Analyze at least two strategies used to advocate and access social justice in health care design and delivery.



Adverse Trend and Data Management

Analyze the adverse trend, including how it affects patient care

Uploading lab results to the wrong patient’s electronic health record system may significantly impact the quality of patient care provided by the hospital. This may also put the patient’s health at risk. The patient receives wrongful medication allowing the bacteria to multiply. This affects patient safety. Such errors also adversely affect the clinical decision making. This is because decisions are made based on wrong information. For instance in the case study, the hospital put the elderly patient in an isolation unit which was not supposed to happen. Such wrongful decision making puts at risk the health of all health care providers as well as other individuals. This is because the individual suffering from the methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was not put in the isolation unit, meaning it was possible to spread the disease through contact to other persons in the nursing care facility and at home.

Uploading wrong results in the EHR also affects the privacy and security of the patient. It can also lead to increased cost of healthcare delivery to the patient, payers and the nursing care facility due to duplicate testing. Errors in the EHR system can increase exponentially impacting patient care to majority of the patients. Giving wrong results to a patient may cause mental anguish and pain. The patient is also put in danger by administering wrong drugs, which may even trigger allergic conditions. In some cases, uploading wrong results can lead to drug overdose or the patient receiving drugs he/she is allergic to. Lastly, uploading wrong results may lead to civil suits filed by aggrieved patients which adversely affect the nursing care facility’s image.

Data that needs to be collected, reviewed and applied.

Particular patient data needs to be collected and thoroughly assessed in order to address the adverse trend. The data collected should help the medical personnel ascertain the person to whom it pertains in order to avoid errors. Certain data attributes, if properly collected and documented can help eliminate mix-up cases. To start with, it is important to record the full name of the patient on the results. The data of birth should be included using the same format for all nursing care facility records. The patient’s gender is also important in ensuring that records match with the actual patients. Other important data which can be collected include the patient’s address, social security number and the phone number as well (“AHIMA,” 2013). These can greatly help in decision-making to avoid cases of wrong patient identification.

The demographic information provided by the patient may not be sufficient in eliminating cases of uploading wrong data in the EHR. Additional data should be collected to minimize the adverse trends (“AHIMA,” 2013).  The nursing care facility should collect biometric information on patients which can significantly help in matching medical records in EHR with the correct patients. Biometric information collected on patients may include fingerprint information, photographs, and palm vein scanning. Additional checks may also include matching algorithms. Probabilistic algorithm can particularly be useful in analyzing the data stored in the EHR system.

Information system methods to be used to collect the data.

There are different types of information system methods used to capture or collect data in a typical EHR system. The first method involves entering the data provided by the patient directly into the EHR system. There are a number of data entry policies which guide the procedure. Additionally, front desk staff and registrars who often handle data entry should undergo training in order to improve their data entry skills to avoid errors such as duplication and mismatch of patient records. This method can be used to collect data such as patient’s name, phone number, gender, date of birth, address, and social security number. Second, templates completed by patients can be included in the EHR system. Third, handwritten documents can be scanned and the information uploaded in the information system.  Patient details such as name and date of birth can be handwritten on a special form which is then scanned and uploaded in the system (“AHIMA,” 2013). Other handwritten reports can also be scanned.

Interfacing the various information systems in place can also help retrieve or access data easily. This involves linking or integrating the various systems in hospitals such that data can be fed and accessed from any point. Various systems can be integrated such as the electrocardiographs, radiology systems, pressure monitors, laboratory systems and others. Biometric information can be collected by use of computers with special scanners. Finger scans can be used to collect patient details and the information fed into the EHR system (Makam et al., 2013).

Information technology and tools needed in each step

There are a number of information technology and tools that are critical in realizing all the steps. Tools to provide physical access are necessary in all nursing care facilities. The first set of tools includes scanning and printing tools. These set of tools make it easier to convert paper records into electronic versions for easier storage in the EHR (Makam et al., 2013). The next set of tools includes desktops, laptops, and workstations. These tools provide physical access. Workstations are particularly useful when the treatment rooms are limited, or when the providers are many and hence the need to share. Notebooks and tablets can also be useful tools in capturing and storing patient data with ease. Servers are also required in each of the steps. Servers are of two types: client-based and web-based servers. Networking is also a critical requirement in an information technology environment. Networking allows connectivity between the computers and to the internet (Makam et al., 2013).

An interface should be provided for all medical devices so as to enhance connectivity. Medical devices which are properly integrated with the HER system enables registrars and other hospital staff to save time and costs and reduce errors which often result during transcription. Voice recognition tools can also be time saving.

Issues related to the data and information technologies.

The regulatory environment provides guidelines with regard to the documentation process using information technologies. The regulatory guidelines surround the copy functionality of the information technologies, timeliness and their accuracy. Ethical issues relate to the privacy of patient information. The information technologies must safeguard patient information against unauthorized access and misuse (Jamoom, Patel, King, & Furukawa, 2012). The nursing care facility is not supposed to share patients’ records not unless the patient authorizes it. In relation to finance, the data and information technologies to be used should be cost effective. The data and information technologies should provide efficiency with respect to minimizing documentation and administrative costs. Efficiency should also be achieved in terms of operational costs. It should be easy for the staff to work with the data and information technology systems. In relation to the socio-cultural aspect, the data and information technologies should not go against the religious beliefs or cultural practices of individuals. In addition, they should uphold the moral and ethical values of individuals.

Strategies used to advocate and access social justice

The nurses’ Code of Ethics encourages nurses to take action in situations where individuals or communities have issues with accessing social justice. In a nursing care facility, the major aim is to improve the quality of lives of all individuals who seek help. This includes the disadvantaged in the community as well as the vulnerable groups. In order to access social justice for the disadvantaged and the vulnerable groups, the nursing care facility must take action and partner with the relevant bodies that can be of help (Linsley, Kane, & Owen, 2011). For instance, it is possible to partner with community support groups or other organizations to improve health care delivery to the vulnerable and disadvantaged.

Various medical personnel such as nurses are given the right to practice and thus they must also take action against any health issues arising. Nurses can also use the mass media, community mobilization strategies, and direct political lobbying in order to advocate and access social justice. These actions should be taken with the key interest being the improvement of the welfare of the disadvantaged and the vulnerable groups. Health professionals must help people in all levels of society and without discrimination (Linsley, Kane, & Owen, 2011).



AHIMA. (2013). Assessing and Improving EHR Data Quality (Updated). Journal of AHIMA,      84(2): 48-53.

Jamoom, E., Patel, V., King, J., & Furukawa, M. (2012). National perceptions of ehr adoption:        Barriers, impacts, and federal policies. National conference on health statistics.

Linsley, P., Kane, R., & Owen, S. (2011). Public health and the nursing role: Contemporary       principles and practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Makam, A.N., Lanham, H.J., Batchelor, K., Samal, L., Moran, B., Howel-Stampley, T., Kirk.L.,             Cherukuri,M., Santini,N., Leykum.L.K., & Halm, A.H. (2013). Use and satisfaction with key functions of a common commercial electronic health record: A survey of primary care providers. BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making 13(86): 1-7.


Informatics Needs Assessment – HCS482

Informatics Needs Assessment – HCS482


scenario:You work at healthcare facility and they are changing from manual document system  to  (EHR) system. they want nurse input to help pick appropriate product.Explain how and why needs assessment must be done before new EHR is picked.Describe some factors to consider in needs assessment.Explain what data to collect & how/where u can assess it. describe who to consult&why.3peer rev reference <5yrs, +Hebda.




According to Clarke, M. A., Belden, J. L., Koopman, R. J., Steege, L. M., Moore, J. L., Canfield, S. M., & Kim, M. S. (2013), an electronic health record (EHR) is a digital or an electronic version of patient health information. The EHR provides synchronized, instantly, and secured information to authorized users. The system doesn’t offer medical and treatment history of a patient but outlines a broader view of their care. The change from manual document system to EHR system is an appropriate step towards giving better services to the patients. However, the healthcare facility should carry a needs assessment before the selection of a new EHR. The reason for an intensive needs assessment is because it is complex and costly for a health facility to undertake.

How to carry on a needs assessment

The purpose of the need assessment is to define clearly what is needed in an EHR. The best way to do a successful need assessment is by involving the stakeholders who will in the end use the EHR. Once the team is ready, all participants may be used to describe their view on the system and the needs that should be fulfilled by the system. The needs assessment can only be complete after the readiness assessment and workflow analysis has been carried on. The readiness assessment ensures that there is shortage in the practice to merit delay or discontinuous of the EHR process (Keating, S. B. 2014). In these assessment questions of financial status of the facility, EHR as a strategic plan, implementation of other supportive technology, and technological equipment to hold the EHR system must be asked and resolved. In workflow analysis, it involves the review of how the practice finalizes the task allied with the encounter of the patients and connected components.  It includes scheduling follow-up visits, billing and collection, and entering clinical notes.

Why needs assessment must be done before new EHR

The process allows or facilitates feedback from all the involved people. It also ensures that the stakeholders have a sense of ownership in the project, which improves the staff buy-in and use of EHR later. It minimizes resistance to corporate culture and change.

Factors to consider in needs assessment

The impact on resources is a major factor as there are expenses that are linked with obtaining computer hardware and software. Resistance to change is a behavior that is normal but with proper management it can effectively be overcome. The executive support is critical to the implementation of the EHR system (Hebda, T., & Czar, P. 2013). Finally, the EHR will impact the corporate culture. There should be proper management of any resultant reaction for the cultural change.

Collection of data and where you can assess it

Data can be accessed through government agencies, journals and magazines, the internet, from experienced personnel and so forth. The information can be collected through questioners, emails and telephone calls.

Who to consult and why it is necessary to consult them

The following people can be consulted on the implementation of the HER system: filling staff, office managers, billing service, medical assistance, front desk, nurses, physicians, shareholders, government agencies, patients, nongovernmental institutions, and other health facilities that have successfully implemented the EHR system (Lorenzi, N. M., & Riley, R. T. 2013). It is necessary to consult them so as to capture the specific needs of the health facility are satisfied by the system.


Before an EHR system is implemented, there is a need of following the due process to avoid disappointments by the system. One of the requirements of a successful EHR implementation is to carry an intensive needs assessment. The paper outlines the informatics needs assessment in details. It also shows the various stakeholders that are useful in ensuring the success of the project.


Clarke, M. A., Belden, J. L., Koopman, R. J., Steege, L. M., Moore, J. L., Canfield, S. M., & Kim, M. S. (2013). Information needs and information‐seeking behaviour analysis of primary care physicians and nurses: a literature review. Health Information & Libraries Journal30(3), 178-190.

Hebda, T., & Czar, P. (2013). Handbook of informatics for nurses & healthcare professionals (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.

Keating, S. B. (2014). Curriculum development and evaluation in nursing. Springer Publishing Company.

Lorenzi, N. M., & Riley, R. T. (2013). Organizational aspects of health informatics: managing technological change. Springer Science & Business Media.


Nursing Informatics Solution Proposal

Nursing Informatics Solution Proposal


Business proposal for nursing staff to give to adm. addressing concern on dispensing medications & listing advantages & suggestion to changing to a bar code system. Need to explain nature of clinical problem. Explain how problem can be resolved with informatics solution,request permisson to pursue solution is reasonable,indicates how project will not negatively impact nurse duties. 1 reference



1.1 Introduction

There are escalating concerns in many organizations about medical errors. It is significant to note that such medical errors have contributed to deaths. Thus, the organizations are forced to tap on informatics to improve patient safety with explicit emphasis on safety in medication use. The technology is also useful in solving clinical problems and meeting accreditation requirements that are related to patient wellbeing.

1.2 Dispensing Medications

The dispensation of medicine involve the process of ordering a prescription based on the assessment of patients, recording the order, review the order, dispensing, administering medication and documenting the administration of medication and its effect.

1.3 Advantages and suggestions to changing to a bar code system

There are numerous benefits that accrue from changing to a bar code system. The automation will evolve to ease execution of pharmacist’s distributive responsibilities. They also expand the capabilities of distribution system, and improve competence in distribution (Kelly, K., Harrington, L., Matos, P., Turner, B., & Johnson, C. 2016). The barcode aids in ensuring that the right medicine is administered to the right patient and at the right dosage. It is important to change to a bar code system because there is less time and cost of implementation of the system.


Strategic Planning Process and Nursing Process

1.4 Nature of clinical problems

The nurse may not work with the level of competency expected from a professional. They may also practice poor medical administration that is by administering medicine without record or following due procedures.

1.5 Resolving clinical problems with informatics solution

Informatics helps to capture, analyze and convert data into actionable information that enables effective clinical decision making. It will also assist in recording and keeping accurate records. There should be room to pursue the solutions as they are reasonable. If the importance of the project is emphasized then the move to automate the procedures will not affect the duties of the nurses.

1.6 Conclusion

The bar code system will reduce the medical errors that are frequently committed by nurses and which in return causes death or harm to patients. The benefits accrued from automation are copious and nursing personnel should embrace them for effective delivery of service.



Kelly, K., Harrington, L., Matos, P., Turner, B., & Johnson, C. (2016). Creating a Culture of Safety Around Bar-Code Medication Administration: An Evidence-Based Evaluation Framework. Journal of Nursing Administration,46(1), 30-37.






Describe nursing competencies. Which competencies relate to information technology? Describe any other competencies that you think should be included in the QSEN website.  Need one reference less than 5 years.




Competency refers to the knowledge; proficiency and attitude that is build and developed in the nursing program for ethical practice in the profession. There are a number of nursing competencies as described by the Institute of Medicine. The key competency include: teamwork, quality improvement, patient-centered care, informatics, and safety. The nurses should be competent to be able to offer knowledge on a range of health sciences practices such as nutrition, epidemiology, immunology, microbiology, genetics, pharmacology, physiology, anatomy, psychopathology, and pharmacology.

Informatics is the competency that relate to information technology. Informatics is a field that incorporates computer science, nursing science and information science to supervise and communicate knowledge of data and practice of nursing. According to Jose, M. M., & Dufrene, C. (2014), informatics is a new competence that is quickly gaining relevance in the nursing profession. It is significant for nurses to have informatics competencies. The knowledge is useful to operate an electronic health record and other technologies that relates to health. There are software applications that assist nurses to make decisions and classify decisions in their day-to-day job of providing direct care to the patients. For sustainability, the nurses should also be interested in changing technology and how it affects the health profession.

Another competency that I think should be added in the QSEN website is integrity. The nursing profession should have people with high level of honesty and integrity. They shouldn’t exaggerate on prices of medicines that have been prescribed to patients by doctors. They should be truthful on their operation. They should ensure that trust gained from the patients is well safeguarded. The material facts about their health shouldn’t be disclosed to other parties without the patient consent (Jose, M. M., & Dufrene, C. 2014).


Jose, M. M., & Dufrene, C. (2014). Educational competencies and technologies for disaster preparedness in undergraduate nursing education: An integrative review. Nurse education today34(4), 543-551.


Strategic Planning Process and Nursing Process

Strategic Planning Process and Nursing Process

Strategic Planning Process and Nursing Process

Strategic planning process entails a systematic approach in matters to do with decision making. Strategic planning defines an organization’s strategy or the direction it takes. It involves making decisions on allocation of resources to achieve various objectives or goals. On the other hand, the nursing process involves organized phases that are meant to help nurses provide better health care to patients. This paper will compare the strategic planning and the nursing process.

According to Grunig & Kuhn (2011), the strategic planning process is primarily concerned with establishing investments that can help an organization preserve the potentials to be successful in the future and to develop new potentials. The success potentials can be categorized into three: a strong position in the market, a competitive advantage in the long-term and lastly competitive advantage over other organizations in terms of resources. Thus, strategic planning ensures that the organization’s mission and vision are in harmony with its long-term goals. In developing a strategic plan, organizations often take into consideration the actions and possible responses of the internal as well as external stakeholders. Strategic planning involves a series of steps which includes goal definition, environmental analysis, data analysis, identifying potential solutions, implementation of actions and finally evaluation (Hebda & Czar, 2013).

The nursing process on the other hand ensures that nurses deliver patient care in a goal oriented and systematic manner. This is similar to future orientation in strategic planning involving organizations. The nursing process is an ongoing and dynamic process that continues indefinitely. The nursing process unites nurses and helps them work in unity to achieve a holistic, patient-oriented care. The nursing process, just like the strategic process also involves a series of steps. These steps include assessment of the patient, diagnosis of the condition, planning or outcomes relating to the patient, implementation of the care plan during hospitalization and evaluation of the patient’s status on a regular basis (Karen, 2012).

Both the strategic planning process and the nursing process focus on long-term goal achievement. They both entail the application of scientific approaches in formulating actions that lead to achievement of the desired outcomes. The nursing process focuses on care of patients in hospital settings. This is slightly different from strategic planning which focuses on ensuring future success of the organization in light of the internal and external stakeholders. Another notable difference is that strategic planning process involves conducting SWOT analysis which entails a look into the organization’s strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats.

The nurses’ role in strategic planning process involves processing data into useful information in relation to the nursing organization. Nurses should be able to plan ahead in relation to new trends or unforeseen events that may impact the nursing organization (Karen, 2012). Thus in strategic planning, the nurse should play a role in involving the necessary stakeholders to decision making. Such stakeholders may include physicians, nurse managers, board members and others. The other role is to develop a projection of the various strategic issues. This includes making a detailed analysis of resources required, current status of development and the resources needed. In light of this, nurses should link the strategic plan with quality plan, human resource plan and the financial plan. The nurse should also develop innovative solutions to various issues in the nursing organization.

The nurse’s role in the nursing process involves keenly following the six steps. In assessment, the nurse must collect and examine data concerning patients. The nurse is also expected to make a diagnosis on the clients’ health needs or response to health conditions. Planning involves the nurse developing a set of goals meant to help the patient recover, for instance eating a balanced diet on regular intervals. Implementation involves a careful execution of the care plan. Lastly, the nurse is expected to carry out regular evaluation of the implemented plans to establish whether they are effective. To become more involved in strategic planning in informatics, nurses at all levels must be actively engaged in the process. It is also imperative to enhance collaboration among nurses at all levels (Hebda & Czar, 2013).



Grünig, R., & Kühn, R. (2011). Process-based strategic planning. Heidelberg: Springer.

Hebda, T., & Czar, P. (2013). Handbook of Informatics (5th ed). Retrieved from The Universisty of Phoenix eBook Collection.

Karen, D. (2012). Strategy as a Solution: Developing a Nursing Strategic Plan. Journal of            Nursing Administration, 42(5): 242 – 245.


Policy Impact on Health Care

Policy Impact on Health Care

Policy Impact on Health Care

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, popularly referred to as Obamacare is one of the most popular yet controversial healthcare policies enacted over the last decade. The health policy was introduced back in the year 2010. The aim of the policy was to extend the health insurance policy to about 15 percent of Americans who lacked health insurance. Statistics indicated that the 15 percent of Americans lacked comprehensive health insurance coverage either from the employers or from the health programs that existed at the time. These individuals were also not covered by health programs that cater for the poor and the elderly. This policy impacts all Americans. This is because it requires all individuals to take health insurance coverage, with the provision for subsidized coverage to make it affordable to almost the entire population.

Businesses with over 50 full-time employees are also required to take cover for their employees. This provision will come into effect in 2016, which is meant to give businesses enough time to put in place proper guidelines to ensure they comply with the policy. There are a number of concerns related to Obamacare. One of the major concerns relates to increased cost of doing business for small scale and medium entrepreneurs. Various analysts feel that this might lead to massive job cuts as businesses try to scale down employees to avoid paying high insurance coverage. The policy’s success is hedged on a large number of young and healthy Americans enrolling in the program. Thus, this policy may be subject to failure if the number of young and healthy Americans enrolling falls compared to the number of sick and elderly policy holders. Lastly under the new policy, individuals with higher salaries may pay higher insurance premiums. This will be a contentious issue among the individuals who will be required to pay more.


Kirk, S. (2014). The Provider’s Guide to Leveraging Obamacare. New York, NY: HealthNet Publishing.


legal issue – administration of an inaccurate medication dosage in pediatric patients


legal issue – administration of an inaccurate medication dosage in pediatric patients

section needed is malpractice and disciplinary action issues in the case of Dennis Quaid twins overdosing after receiving inaccurate medication dosage of heparin.  need one reference within last 5 years

Solved  Powerpoint Medical Malpractives



What you need to know about DNP

Creating a Health Promotion Program-Teen Smoking


Objective: To create a health promotion program for a priority population (audience). Refer to “Creating a Health Promotion Program” in your etext,  Chapter 5. First determine your priority population and a health promotion plan you are creating and submit your topic to me for approval through the assignment post by 2.3.18 .  Once your topic is approved, create a proposal for a health promotion program.

The proposal must be between 5 to 10 pages, excluding any graphics, and requires the following information:

Identify the population and health topic

Assess the needs of the priority population

Set the goals and objectives for the program

How will the goals and objectives be achieved

Implement the intervention

Describe how will you implement the interventions

Teen Smoking

Population and Health Issue

Teen smoking has become a serious health issue in the US and other parts of the world. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2017), about 90 percent of cigarette smokers begun experimenting in their teens. Further, about 99 percent of smokers started the habit before they were 26 years. These statistics indicate that teen smoking can be a predictor of future adult smoking rates. The statistics also indicate that among all age cohorts, adolescents face the greatest risk of acquiring smoking habits. By focusing on adolescent behaviors that lead to smoking, it might be possible to reduce significantly the future smoking rates among the general population. This would lead to a decline in diseases attributed to smoking such as lung cancer, oral cancer, bronchitis, tooth loss, and among others. This paper is an evaluation of a health promotion plan that can help in reducing smoking among adolescents.

Needs of the Priority Population

Various social and psychological needs increase the likelihood of smoking in adolescents. Khurshid & Ansari (2012) conducted a study to determine the factors that contribute to smoking among adolescents. The findings indicated that a multiplicity of factors contribute to smoking among adolescents. The psychological factors rank the highest contributors to smoking. These factors include anger issues, stress, frustrations, fear, domestic issues, and among others. Majority of adolescents admitted to developing smoking habits in order to deal with such psychological problems (Khurshid & Ansari, 2012). The second most important factor is the social factors. This is mainly the need for acceptance amongst one’s peers or friends. Another major factor contributing to smoking is personality. Adolescents have high degree of consciousness about their style. They may begin smoking to fit a particular personality.

Another factor contributing to smoking among adolescents is the taste and feeling attributed with smoking (Khurshid & Ansari, 2012). Smoking gives some adolescents a unique feeling or taste. This creates the urge to engage in the behavior on a habitual basis. Adolescents have many needs which if unfulfilled may lead to drug and substance abuse. Due to stress and peer influence, adolescents are also likely to engage in smoking. Adolescents have poor coping mechanisms for stress and thus likely to engage in drug and substance abuse. There is also the drive for experimentation, which increases the likelihood of engaging in drug and substance abuse.

Goals and Objectives for the Program

The health promotion program has several goals and objectives. The goals and objectives outline what the health promotion program ought to achieve with regard to smoking in adolescents. The following are the goals and objectives of the program.

Program Goals

  • To reduce the percentage of adolescents and especially students who report smoking within a year.
  • To increase awareness among adolescents of the health consequences associated with tobacco smoking.
  • To promote the establishment of new policies and programs meant to curb smoking in schools.
  • To reduce the ease of access of tobacco products around schools.
  • To reduce tobacco advertisements and promotions that seeks to target the young.

Program Objectives

  • To reduce the number of teens in schools who report smoking by 30 percent.
  • To influence the increase of the price of tobacco products by 10 percent.
  • Reduce the number of adolescents who report exposure to secondhand smoke in public places by 50 percent.
  • To provide treatment to all teens who report tobacco dependence.

Achieving the Goals and Objectives

Providing information to teens about the harmful effects of cigarette smoking will significantly help in reducing incidences of teen smoking. Providing information can encourage those who have acquired the habit to quit and discourage others from starting smoking. It is possible to achieve this by developing educational programs for youths in schools. Community programs can also help in delivering information about drug abuse to the youths. Community programs that combine sporting events can be used as opportunities to provide information to the youths about drug abuse. Such efforts can help in reducing the number of teens turning to smoking and other forms of substance abuse.

Lobbying for tax increments in tobacco products can help in reducing tobacco consumption among youths. According to Bader, Boisclair, and Ferrence (2011), increasing taxes on tobacco products, which in turn lead to high prices of cigarettes, may significantly encourage smokers to contemplate quitting smokers and discourage others from acquiring the habit. Raising taxes on tobacco products may thus help to reduce tobacco smoking among the youth. There is need for strict tobacco use regulations to prevent exposure to secondhand smoke. Currently, some states have not enacted any regulations guiding smoking in public places while others have banned smoking in restaurants, bars, and other public places.

There is need to lobby for strict regulations to control the sale and advertising of tobacco products. Teens especially those above the 18 years age bracket are a prime target for tobacco industry advertising campaigns. There is need to implement strict regulations on tobacco advertising in various mediums. Currently, cigarette manufacturers can still advertise their products in grocery stores, pharmacies, convenience stores, and other point-of-sale locations. Such advertisements especially where they are near schools may influence teens into experimenting with the products. There is need to develop strict controls of all forms of cigarette advertising especially targeting the youths. Further, there is need to curb the selling of cigarettes near institutions. Restricting access will reduce the use of cigarettes among the youths.

Implementing the Intervention

The health promotion program targeting teens will significantly help in reducing the number of teens who acquire smoking habits. The first phase of the intervention will directly aim at influencing teens in institutions to quit smoking or to discourage them from acquiring the habit. This will be done through peer education. Peer education is the sharing of important information among peers. Peer educators will engage in informal talks with other students with the aim of informing them about the dangers of smoking. Peer educators will also inform addicts about possible health centers where they may obtain professional help to quit smoking. Peer educators will engage in informal talks meant to dissuade students from smoking and to adopt behaviors that do not increase the risk of tobacco smoking. For instance, engaging in sports can help reduce the chances of smoking by keeping one engaged all the time.

Implementing the intervention will require careful selection and training of peer educators. The first step will be to identify the potential peer educators, preferably students who are highly influential among their peers. After selection of peer educators, they will undergo a one week training and development program so that they may better understand what they are supposed to do. Successful peer educators will engage in informal talks with other students during free time and after school closes. Peer educators will attempt to change student norms regarding smoking. For those who are already addicted to smoking, the peer educators will attempt to persuade them to seek professional counselling services to quit smoking.

Evaluating the Results

It is important to evaluate the results of the health promotion program. It will be possible to evaluate the effectiveness of the program by looking at the acceptance of the program among students. If there is a positive reception of the program, the chances of the program success will be higher. The results will also be evaluated based on the percentage reduction in chances of a student becoming a habitual smoker in the year that the intervention became effective. A reduction in the percentage of students who report smoking will be an indicator of the effectiveness of the health promotion program.

Another way of evaluating the results is by assessing the general awareness of the health consequences of smoking among the student population. A key goal of the program is to inform the youths about the consequences of tobacco smoking. By providing information, students will be empowered to adopt behaviors that do not lead to smoking. Large body of students who possess knowledge about the consequences of tobacco smoking will be indicative of the program success. Generally, peer education will aim at changing student behavior and norms concerning cigarette smoking. This will help in reducing the tendency of students to engage in cigarette smoking.


Bader, P., Boisclair, D., & Ferrence, R. (2011). Effects of Tobacco Taxation and Pricing on Smoking Behavior in High Risk Populations: A Knowledge Synthesis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health8(11), 4118–4139.

Khurshid, F., & Ansari, U. (2012). Causes of smoking habit among the teenagers. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, 3(9): 848 – 854.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2017). Youth and tobacco use. Retrieved from

Greg Boyd’s sermon on “What is Truth?”, along with your thoughts.


Watch and write a 2-3 page summary on Greg Boyd’s sermon on “What is Truth?”, along with your thoughts.


What is Truth

Boyd (2018) discusses the nature of truth, noting that individuals are living in an era characterized by a crisis of truth. Crisis of truth refers to difficulties among individuals in discerning what is true or not. In the contemporary world, people are bombarded with information from various sources such as media outlets, social media, the church, friends, and other sources. It is increasingly difficult to tell which of these sources stands for the truth. In addition, individuals are at a loss on where they can obtain true information. Previously reputable sources of information such as the church and media outlets are no longer the sources of truth. Instead, people view information coming from such outlets with skepticism.

Boyd (2018) examines how the historical account of the crisis of truth. During the late Renaissance period (1500s and 1600s), there was a state of perpetual warfare lasting about three decades and resulting from religious intolerance. The political elites resolved to end the religious warfare by coming up with a series of treaties, the notable one being the Peace of Westphalia treaty. This treaty barred people from engaging in any form of religious intolerance and instilled in people the need to respect each other’s differences. This created a pluralistic society where individuals held different beliefs. Prior to the signing of the treaty, individuals in a particular society held similar beliefs. As such, they could not tolerate anyone who had a contrasting opinion.

The emergence of a pluralistic society induces tolerance to contrasting opinions from other people. In addition, it sensitizes individuals of their culture’s influence to their beliefs. In a global society, it becomes difficult to have absolute truths because of the influence of culture. As such, individuals can only talk about their personal truths. This brings about the concept of truth relativism. This concept holds that absolute truths do not exist; truth is always subject to some particular external influence such as culture and language. In other words, truth will vary depending on the place and period. Since there is no absolute truth, individuals can have their own truths that contrast with other people’s version of truth without having any problems (Boyd, 2018).

Boyd (2018) highlights five key elements surrounding truth relativism. The first element is that religious beliefs pose great danger to the society. The second element is that truth relativism is self-contradictory. This is because if there is no absolute truth, it is not easy to tell whether the statement itself may be a lie. Thirdly, truth is narrow. The singularity occurs because there is only a single version of truth. Fourthly, there exists some shared reality among individuals concerning the truth. The shared reality comprises of the moral code. Lastly, it is only Jesus who said absolute truths.

In summary, the truth is relative in nature. What holds as the truth for one individuals may not apply as the truth for all individuals. Those who hold absolute truths have a narrow-minded frame of thinking. For instance, those who believe that their religion is the only true religion may end up committing various atrocities among those who do not subscribe to their belief of the truth. Terrorists commit inhuman acts against those who do not subscribe to their views for they hold absolute truths concerning their religion. What holds as the truth for one person will depend on the culture, language, and other influencing factors. As such, people are likely to interpret information from media outlets, social media, and other sources using the relativistic concept of truth.



Boyd, G. (2018). What is truth? Retrieved from


Mental Health Organization in Brick


Identify (using the Internet) an organization in your community or a community of your choice that you believe provides mental health services. List and describe the type of services offered.  After this please explain in a short paragraph what you feel to be the status of mental health care in this particular community.

Mental Health Organization in Brick

There are organizations that provide mental health services in my area, Brick, New Jersey. One of the organizations is Brookhaven Retreat. This is a private organization providing mental health services to women around the community and from other places as well. Brookhaven Retreat offers a number of mental health services (Brookhaven Retreat, 2018). The following is an overview of the mental health services women may receive from this organization.

Treatment for Mood Disorders

Brookhaven Retreat provides treatment to patients suffering from various mood disorders such as anxiety, depression, and bipolar disorder (Brookhaven Retreat, 2018). The health organization provides full medical diagnosis to patients and support for those diagnosed with mood disorders. The health organization also treats women by encouraging self-exploration. This can help in identifying the root cause of the mood disorders.

Related: The Japanese Internment

Trauma Services

The health organization provides treatment to patients with various levels of trauma. Trauma services focus on patients who have gone through traumatic experiences such as rape, physical injuries, shocking events, and among others.

Alcohol and Substance Abuse Treatment

Brookhaven Retreat provides treatment to patients having addiction problems. The health organization provides addicts with a 30-day detoxification program aimed at treating their addiction to alcohol and substance abuse (Brookhaven Retreat, 2018). The community organization has qualified RNs who assist patients in their road to recovery from alcohol and substance abuse.

The status of mental health care in Brick, New Jersey, is high. A high status indicates that individuals have high access rates to mental health care in the community. This is because there are other health organizations in the community providing mental health services such as the Behavioral Health Centers of America. High number of mental health service providers in the area translates to improved mental health care.


Brookhaven Retreat. (2018). Why Brookhaven Retreat. Retrieved from   

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